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The Lummi Indian Nation

The Lummi Indian Nation



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O Lummi original falava o dialeto Songish da língua Salish, uma característica cultural que persiste até o presente. Eles voltaram sazonalmente para suas malocas situadas em locais dispersos na reserva atual no condado ocidental de Whatcom e nas ilhas San Juan do estado de Washington. Sua dieta rica em proteínas consistia principalmente de salmão, seguido de truta, marisco, alce, veado, outros animais selvagens, bulbos de cama com amido e frutos secos ao sol. A estrutura social Lummi era centrada na família e orientada para a aldeia, marcada por complexas inter-relações. Os Lummi eram artesãos talentosos na fabricação de barcos, redes de cerco, casas e vários outros artefatos, e faziam parte de uma sofisticada rede política regional. Os Lummi não começaram a sofrer influências nacionais estrangeiras até cerca de 1800. Como seus predecessores, os Os comerciantes dos Estados Unidos não desejavam o que a economia Lummi produzia; em vez disso, eles queriam agressivamente suas matérias-primas e terras. Em meados do século 19, o povo Lummi começou a experimentar o desaparecimento de suas vibrantes estruturas sociais e políticas. Também por volta de 1850, os Lummi foram convertidos ao cristianismo por meio dos esforços do Católico Romano Casimir Chirouse e, posteriormente, de seus pais Oblatos. Uma missão foi estabelecida no que seria sua reserva. Em 1855, a Nação Lummi assinou o Tratado de Point Elliot com os EUA, que exigia que os nativos abandonassem grande parte de sua terra natal no Território de Washington ocidental. Em 1909, os índios na reserva Lummi, incluindo vários bandos menores, totalizavam apenas cerca de 435 almas, uma diminuição pela metade em quatro décadas. Em 1948, a Nação Lummi adotou uma constituição tribal, emendada e ratificada em 1970, que criou o presente estrutura governamental: um conselho empresarial tribal. Naquele ano, o conselho entrou com uma ação junto à Comissão de Reclamações Indígenas por dinheiro adicional dos Estados Unidos, argumentando que a quantia concedida a eles no tratado de 1855 era muito baixa. 22 de janeiro de 1972, a tribo recebeu a diferença no valor de $ 57.000. Por milhares de anos, os Lummi e outras tribos pescaram sem afetar adversamente as corridas de salmão. Porém, começando com a chegada do homem branco, a população de salmão entrou em declínio acentuado. Além disso, as represas cruzaram grandes seções de rios onde o salmão se propagou. Os Lummi e 19 outras tribos do tratado também sofreram menos de um século de políticas e práticas da sociedade dominante que os excluía da pesca comercial de salmão no oeste de Washington. O juiz do Tribunal Distrital Federal, George Boldt, proferiu uma decisão que definia os direitos de pesca dos índios e garantia aos índios do tratado 50 por cento da colheita de salmão permitida. A pesca continuaria a ser o principal meio de subsistência para a maioria dos Lummi. A tribo enfrentou o declínio do salmão ao formar uma frente galvanizada que agora desempenha um papel importante na manutenção dos estoques de peixes da região e na gestão responsável do recurso ameaçado de salmão. Parte desse esforço é representado por sua incubadora de salmão de reserva.


Veja o mapa das Regiões Culturais dos Nativos Americanos.


10 coisas que você precisa saber sobre a Lummi Nation

A Lummi Nation é amplamente conhecida por sua arte e artistas (Jewell Praying Wolf James & # x2019 totens, por exemplo), sua faculdade (Northwest Indian College), suas personalidades (jogador profissional de futebol / modelo fitness Temryss Lane) e seus esforços para defender o meio ambiente e os lugares sagrados.

Representantes da Nação Lummi e dos Estados Unidos assinaram o Tratado de Point Elliott em 1855, que disponibilizou uma grande área do oeste de Washington para assentamentos não-nativos. No tratado, Lummi reteve terras e certos direitos dentro de seu território histórico.

Hoje, a reserva Lummi compreende 21.000 acres (Lummi Nation Atlas, 2008) & # x2013 incluindo planaltos e marés na Península Lummi e Ilha Portage & # x2013, mas Lummi exerce influência cultural, ambiental e política em todo o seu território histórico, que inclui o San Juan Islands. A Nação Lummi tem mais de 5.000 cidadãos, 78 por cento dos quais vivem perto dos limites da reserva.

O que realmente sabemos sobre o povo Lummi? Para responder a essa pergunta, consultamos várias fontes. Aqui está o que eles disseram.

& # x201CNós somos Salmon People & # x201D: Os Lummi são os Lhaq & # x2019temish, o Povo do Mar. Desde tempos imemoriais, sua cultura e sobrevivência dependem do salmão.

& # x201CNós pescamos por milhares e milhares de anos, você sabe, então o salmão é um alimento básico de nossa dieta e sempre foi e ainda é muito importante, & # x201D Lummi o artista e ex-pescador comercial Felix Solomon disse em um vídeo por o Museu Nacional do Índio Americano. & # x201Cit & # x2019s um alimento que satisfaz o seu espírito por dentro. É nossa identidade aqui em Lummi & # x2014 nós & # x2019re povo salmão. & # X201D

Linda Delgado, gerente de aprimoramento de salmão do Departamento de Recursos Naturais da Lummi Nation & # x2019s, disse ao NMAI, & # x201CA grande parte de nossa cultura gira em torno de comer salmão. Foi assim que vivemos e nos sustentamos. & # X201D

Identidade forte: & # x201CAinda sabemos quem somos e de onde viemos, & # x201D disse Tsilixw James, notável artista, educador e chefe hereditário da Nação Lummi. & # x201Nossos ancestrais ainda estão lá. Ainda somos um povo vivo. Ainda usamos todos os nomes de lugares ancestrais. & # X201D

Lutie Hillaire, no centro, levanta as mãos em agradecimento enquanto ela e sua família cantam no Friday Harbor & aposs Jack Fairweather Park, em 2009. A Lummi Nation foi homenageada como a Primeira Povo da ilha durante a celebração do Quatro de Julho na cidade e aposs.

Liderança forte: A Nação Lummi tem um Gabinete de Soberania e Proteção de Tratados que trabalha exatamente como seu nome indica. O Departamento de Recursos Naturais da Nation & # x2019s está explorando o desenvolvimento de energia limpa. Lummi & # x2019s Northwest Indian College hospeda o Simpósio de Estudos Indígenas Vine Deloria Jr., que reúne líderes indígenas e não-nativos, acadêmicos e outros & # x201Que estão interessados ​​em homenagear as causas às quais Deloria devotou sua vida e construir sobre a fundação ele e outros ajudaram a construir. & # x201D O presidente da Lummi, Tim Ballew, é membro do Conselho de Governos da Whatcom, uma organização regional.

& # x201CNós líderes em nível nacional e internacional - mudança climática, GWE (Lei de Exclusão de Bem-Estar Geral), questões tributárias e de pesca, & # x201D disse o artista e poeta Shasta Cano-Martin, membro do Lummi Indian Business Council, o governo corpo da Nação Lummi.

Uma canoa Lummi chega a Friday Harbor na Ilha de San Juan, para a celebração do quarto de julho de Friday Harbor em 2009. A Ilha de San Juan é o lugar de origem do povo Lummi.

Cultura forte de canoa: Historicamente, a canoa era o principal meio de transporte no Mar Salish. A canoa nunca deixou de ser uma parte vital da cultura Lummi. Lummi está representado nas primeiras fotografias das corridas de canoa de guerra da Costa Noroeste e da pesca de recife no Mar Salish, que envolvia um recife artificial que conduzia a redes colocadas entre as canoas nas quais os salmões migrantes nadariam. Lummi sediou o Stommish Water Festival e as corridas de canoa desde 1946 para homenagear os veteranos que retornaram. Várias famílias de canoas Lummi participam da Jornada de Canoagem anual. A Lummi Nation sediou a Canoe Journey em 2007, que apresentou o maior potlatch público da Lummi em 70 anos.

Economia diversa. Os empreendimentos econômicos da Lummi Nation incluem o Silver Reef Hotel Casino Spa, com 105 quartos, um centro de convenções e eventos, seis restaurantes, dois bar / restaurantes e um café Fisherman & # x2019s Cove Marina, lar da maior frota pesqueira da região e Gateway Center, casa do Gateway Caf & # xE9, Salish Arts Market e Seafood Market.

Além disso, a Lummi Community Development Financial Institution oferece oportunidades para habitação e desenvolvimento de negócios por meio de produtos de empréstimo, educação financeira e coaching de negócios.

& # x201CFishing [é] nosso modo de vida econômico mais valioso, & # x201D disse cu-se-ma-at Cathy Ballew, cujo sobrinho, Tim, é presidente da Lummi Nation. & # x201CI sempre costumava dizer que 98 por cento dos Lummis são pescadores. Hoje, a porcentagem caiu devido à colheita excessiva e às mudanças climáticas. E nosso pessoal precisa aprender novas profissões, em nossa faculdade ou em um emprego prático. & # X201D

O mestre tecelão da Lummi, Fran James, parabeniza os alunos que estarão morando e estudando na Academia Juvenil Lummi, na inauguração da academia em 2008. James, que saiu em 2013, foi um professor de longa data da cultura e dos valores Lummi.

Talentos diversos: & # x201CNós somos artistas de muitos ofícios & # x201D disse Vernell Lane, consultor de planejamento de eventos do Lummi Indian Business Council. Lummi produziu proeminentes atletas, escultores, pintores, artistas performáticos, contadores de histórias tradicionais, tecelões e & # x201Ficultores do mar. & # X201D

A educação é fundamental: A Escola de Aquicultura Lummi evoluiu para o Northwest Indian College, que, além de seu campus principal, tem seis locais satélites e oferece bacharelado em Liderança de Estudos Nativos, Ciência Ambiental Nativa, Governança Tribal e Gestão Empresarial e graus associados e # x2019s em Artes e Ciências, Ciências Aplicadas, Artes Técnicas e Programas de Certificação.

Lummi também tem um centro de educação infantil, uma escola secundária com reserva e a Lummi Youth Academy, que oferece um ambiente de vida e aprendizagem estável para jovens em situação de risco.

Ensine bem as crianças: & # x201Nosso ensino é proteger o meio ambiente, preservar nossa cultura e promover os ensinamentos tradicionais, & # x201D cu-se-ma-at disse. & # x201CEducar nossos filhos em nossa própria língua, canções, dança e [histórias], para saber como e por que isso identifica quem somos & # x2026 [Queremos] para garantir que os jovens entendam e salvaguardem nossa cultura para mantê-la viva . Nossa música, canções e dança têm um significado significativo e todos têm um papel especial na comunidade [para] mostrar quem somos e de onde viemos. & # X201D

Protetores ambientais: A Nação Lummi tem defendido o Tratado de Point Elliott desde que o documento foi assinado em 1855. Uma grande parte desse esforço tem sido garantir que os Estados Unidos mantenham suas responsabilidades de saúde, educação e confiança. Outra grande parte é defender o meio ambiente. Se o desenvolvimento e a indústria continuarem a degradar o habitat, não haverá salmão para colher e o tratado será violado.

O Escritório de Soberania e Proteção do Tratado da Nação Lummi & # x2019s destaca que todas as pessoas & # x2013 Nativas e não-nativas & # x2013 se beneficiam do tratado e de um meio ambiente saudável. O escritório de proteção tem liderado o esforço para educar as pessoas sobre os impactos negativos de um terminal de trem de carvão proposto em Cherry Point, um local de aldeia ancestral e arenque que desova de arenque é um alimento forrageiro importante para o salmão. Em 2013 e 2014, Jewell Praying Wolf James, diretor do escritório de proteção e escultor mestre, levou totens com tema ambiental em um passeio pelas comunidades do noroeste ameaçadas pelo transporte de carvão e petróleo para reunir as pessoas a fazerem valer seu direito a um meio ambiente saudável.

Henry Cagey, então presidente da Lummi Nation, ajudou a abrir a Lummi Youth Academy em 2008. A academia oferece um ambiente de vida e aprendizagem estável para jovens em risco.

Como co-gerente da pesca do estado & # x2019s e para ajudar a fortalecer as populações de peixes e crustáceos para as colheitas, a Lummi Nation opera duas incubadoras de peixes e uma incubadora de crustáceos.

Cuidar do meio ambiente que os sustenta é um valor atemporal da Lummi. & # x201CNós devemos caminhar juntos como um - certifique-se de ter uma impressão positiva e de retribuir aos outros e ao meio ambiente, & # x201D cu-se-ma-at disse. & # xA0

Honre os portadores da cultura: & # x201C estamos determinados a sustentar nosso modo de vida natural & # x2013, respeitando nosso modo de vida tradicional, ouvindo os mais velhos com respeito e honrando todos os ensinamentos que estão sendo divulgados para nós, & # x201D cu-se-ma- em disse. & # x201CAs minha avó Sadie diria, nós aprendemos algo todos os dias e se você ainda não & # x2019t, então seu dia não acabou. Nossa educação começa no nascimento e nunca termina. Não vamos sentar em uma sala de aula e aprender & # x2013 nossos ensinamentos são práticos e você aprende o tempo todo. & # X201D

O escultor mestre Lummi, Jewell James, com chapéu de cedro à esquerda, e sua família estão ao lado do poste de cura que ele esculpiu para a Biblioteca Nacional de Medicina em Bethesda, Maryland, em 2011. James e sua Casa das Lágrimas Escultores compartilharam a cultura e os valores nativos por meio da arte, esculpindo postes de cura para os locais atingidos por terroristas no 11 de setembro e postes com tema ambiental para áreas ameaçadas pela poluição. Este pólo de cura apresenta elementos relacionados à cura tradicional.

Richard Arlin Walker, mexicano / Yaqui, vive na terra natal Samish de Anacortes, Washington, cerca de 80 milhas a noroeste de Seattle.


Linha do tempo da história dos índios americanos

Anos antes de Cristóvão Colombo pisar no que viria a ser conhecido como Américas, o extenso território era habitado por nativos americanos. Ao longo dos séculos 16 e 17, à medida que mais exploradores buscavam colonizar suas terras, os nativos americanos responderam em vários estágios, da cooperação à indignação à revolta.

Depois de se aliar aos franceses em inúmeras batalhas durante a Guerra Francesa e Indígena e, eventualmente, serem removidos à força de suas casas sob a Lei de Remoção de Índios de Andrew Jackson e # x2019, as populações de nativos americanos diminuíram em tamanho e território no final do século XIX.

Abaixo estão os eventos que moldaram os nativos americanos e a tumultuada história após a chegada de colonos estrangeiros.

1492: Cristóvão Colombo pousa em uma ilha do Caribe após três meses de viagem. A princípio acreditando que havia alcançado as Índias Orientais, ele descreve os nativos que encontra como & # x201 índios. & # X201D Em seu primeiro dia, ele ordena que seis nativos sejam presos como servos.

Abril de 1513: O explorador espanhol Juan Ponce de Leon pousa na América do Norte continental na Flórida e faz contato com os nativos americanos.

Fevereiro de 1521: Ponce de Leon parte em outra viagem de San Juan para a Flórida para iniciar uma colônia. Meses após o desembarque, Ponce de Leon é atacado por nativos americanos locais e é mortalmente ferido.

Maio de 1539: O explorador e conquistador espanhol Hernando de Soto chega à Flórida para conquistar a região. Ele explora o Sul sob a orientação de nativos americanos que foram capturados ao longo do caminho.

Outubro de 1540: De Soto e os espanhóis planejam se encontrar com os navios no Alabama quando forem atacados por nativos americanos. Centenas de nativos americanos são mortos na batalha que se segue.

C. 1595: Nasce Pocahontas, filha do Chefe Powhatan.

1607: Pocahontas & # x2019 irmão sequestra Capitão John Smith da colônia Jamestown. Smith escreveu mais tarde que depois de ser ameaçado pelo Chefe Powhatan, ele foi salvo por Pocahontas. Esse cenário é debatido por historiadores.

1613: Pocahontas é capturado pelo Capitão Samuel Argall na primeira Guerra Anglo-Powhatan. Enquanto cativa, ela aprende a falar inglês, se converte ao cristianismo e recebe o nome de & # x201CRebecca. & # X201D

1622: A Confederação de Powhatan quase aniquila a colônia de Jamestown.

1680: Uma revolta de nativos americanos Pueblo no Novo México ameaça o domínio espanhol sobre o Novo México.

1754: A guerra francesa e indiana começa, colocando os dois grupos contra os assentamentos ingleses no norte.

15 de maio de 1756: The Seven Years & # x2019 A guerra entre os britânicos e os franceses começa, com alianças de nativos americanos ajudando os franceses.

7 de maio de 1763 : Ottawa Chief Pontiac lidera as forças nativas americanas na batalha contra os britânicos em Detroit. Os britânicos retaliam atacando os guerreiros Pontiac & # x2019s em Detroit em 31 de julho, no que é conhecido como a Batalha de Corrida Sangrenta. Pontiac e companhia os repeliram com sucesso, mas há várias vítimas em ambos os lados.

1785: O Tratado de Hopewell é assinado na Geórgia, protegendo os índios Cherokee nos Estados Unidos e seccionando suas terras.

1788/89: Nasce Sacagawea.

1791: É assinado o Tratado de Holston, no qual os Cherokee desistem de todas as suas terras fora das fronteiras previamente estabelecidas.

20 de agosto de 1794: A Batalha de Timbers, a última grande batalha no território do noroeste entre os nativos americanos e os Estados Unidos após a Guerra Revolucionária, começa e resulta na vitória dos EUA.

2 de novembro de 1804 - A nativa americana Sacagawea, grávida de 6 meses, conhece os exploradores Meriwether Lewis e William Clark durante a exploração do território de Compra da Louisiana. Os exploradores percebem seu valor como tradutora

7 de abril de 1805& # xA0- Sacagawea, junto com seu filho e marido Toussaint Charbonneau, juntam-se a Lewis e Clark em sua viagem.

Novembro de 1811: Forças dos EUA atacam & # xA0 Chefe da guerra americano nativo Tecumseh & # xA0e seu irmão mais novo Lalawethika. & # XA0Sua comunidade na junção dos rios & # xA0Tippecanoe e Wabash foi destruída.

18 de junho de 1812: O presidente James Madison assina uma declaração de guerra contra a Grã-Bretanha, começando a guerra entre as forças dos EUA e os britânicos, franceses e nativos americanos sobre a independência e a expansão do território.

27 de março de 1814: Andrew Jackson, junto com as forças dos EUA e aliados nativos americanos, atacam os índios Creek que se opuseram à expansão americana e à invasão de seu território na Batalha de Horseshoe Bend. Os Creeks cederam mais de 20 milhões de acres de terra após sua perda.

28 de maio de 1830: O presidente Andrew Jackson assina a Lei de Remoção de Índios, que dá lotes de terra a oeste do rio Mississippi para tribos nativas americanas em troca de terras que lhes são tiradas. & # XA0

1836: O último dos nativos americanos Creek deixou suas terras para Oklahoma como parte do processo de remoção de índios. Dos 15.000 riachos que fazem a viagem para Oklahoma, mais de 3.500 não sobrevivem.

1838: Com apenas 2.000 Cherokees deixando suas terras na Geórgia para cruzar o rio Mississippi, o presidente Martin Van Buren convoca o General Winfield Scott e 7.000 soldados para acelerar o processo, mantendo-os sob a mira de uma arma e marchando-os por 1.200 milhas. Mais de 5.000 Cherokee morrem como resultado da jornada. A série de realocações de tribos nativas americanas e suas dificuldades e mortes durante a jornada se tornaria conhecida como a Trilha das Lágrimas.

1851: Congresso aprova a Lei de Apropriações Indígenas, criando o sistema de reservas indígenas. Os nativos americanos não têm permissão para deixar suas reservas sem permissão.

Outubro de 1860: Um grupo de nativos americanos Apache ataca e sequestra um americano branco, resultando nos militares dos EUA acusando falsamente o líder nativo americano da tribo Chiricahua Apache, Cochise. Cochise e os Apache aumentam os ataques contra americanos brancos por uma década depois.

29 de novembro de 1864: 650 forças voluntárias do Colorado atacam os acampamentos Cheyenne e Arapaho ao longo de Sand Creek, matando e mutilando mais de 150 índios americanos durante o que viria a ser conhecido como o Massacre de Sandy Creek.

1873: & # xA0Crazy Horse & # xA0encontra o General George Armstrong Custer pela primeira vez.

1874: Ouro descoberto em Dakota do Sul & # x2019s Black Hills leva as tropas dos EUA a ignorar um tratado e invadir o território.

25 de junho de 1876: Na Batalha de Little Bighorn, também conhecida como & # x201CCuster & # x2019s Last Stand, & # x201D Tenente Coronel George Custer & # x2019s tropas lutam contra guerreiros Lakota Sioux e Cheyenne, liderados por Crazy Horse e Sitting Bull, ao longo do rio Little Bighorn. Custer e suas tropas são derrotados e mortos, aumentando as tensões entre americanos nativos e americanos brancos.

6 de outubro de 1879: Os primeiros alunos freqüentam a Carlisle Indian Industrial School na Pensilvânia, o país e o primeiro internato sem reserva. A escola, criada pelo veterano da Guerra Civil Richard Henry Pratt, foi projetada para assimilar alunos nativos americanos.


Lummi Nation

Os povos da nação Lummi são os habitantes originais da terra e das águas costeiras agora conhecidas como Bellingham e Ferndale no condado de Whatcom, WA. Eles são descendentes de uma comunidade aborígene que habitava o arquipélago da Ilha de San Juan, no estado de Washington.

Seus ancestrais eram um povo do “ciclo sazonal” que passava grande parte da primavera, verão e início do outono caçando e coletando, retornando aos seus vilarejos permanentes durante os meses de inverno. Conhecidos como o “povo salmão”, sua história oral homenageia a Mulher Salmon e seus filhos.

A área é conhecida hoje como a Nação Lummi no lado norte da Baía de Bellingham foi formada pelo Tratado de 1855. Os Lummi são a terceira maior tribo no estado de Washington, com mais de 5.000 membros.

Nacionalmente reconhecida como líder em autogovernança e educação tribal, a Nação Lummi é o lar do Northwest Indian College, que é credenciado como uma faculdade com bacharelado de 4 anos que atende 1.200 alunos anualmente de tribos de todo o país. Os princípios educacionais são centrados na crença de que um programa de autoconsciência deve incluir um estudo da cultura, valores e história dos índios americanos.

As conexões com a terra e a água permaneceram fortes entre o povo Lummi. Muitos são pescadores e artistas, preservando ativamente suas antigas tradições. Todo mês de junho, a comunidade comemora seu passado, presente e futuro no Festival da Água Lummi Stommish, com corridas de canoa de cedro, jogos, música e dança.


Lummi Nation

Canoas da Nação Lummi na beira da água.

A excursão da aula desta semana nos levou a Lummi Nation. Ao chegarmos à terra de Lummi, fomos recebidos por Lisa, a diretora de recursos naturais da Lummi Nation. Entramos na sede da Nação Lummi. Ao entrar, notei a bela canoa de cedro que pairava sobre nossas cabeças e outros trabalhos de arte cultural dos artistas Lummi em vitrines à esquerda e à direita da área de boas-vindas. Subimos as escadas para uma sala de conferências para ouvir o trabalho de Lisa e # 8217s e de outros membros da tribo Lummi sobre recursos naturais e pesca com redes de recife. Lisa começou um vídeo que nos contou a história da nação Lummi, sua conexão pessoal com a pesca e a resiliência constante que o povo Lummi tem sofrido por causa da invasão de seus recursos naturais. Uma ideia principal que tirei do vídeo: desde a assinatura do Tratado de Point Elliot em 1855, os Lummi foram proibidos e expulsos da pesca.

& # 8220A nação Lummi come mais salmão do que qualquer outro lugar do mundo. & # 8221 -O ex-membro do Conselho da Nação Lummi

No final do vídeo & # 8217s, um ex-membro do conselho se levantou e nos contou sua história sobre a pesca. Seu pai cresceu pescando, mas durante a guerra dos peixes, ele foi preso. Isso o levou a tirar sua família da reserva. Ele falou sobre a polêmica com a Lummi ter o primeiro incubatório de prateleira nos Estados Unidos. Depois de morar na cidade, o que planejava ser uma visita de duas semanas o levou a ficar permanentemente na nação de Lummin. O que me interessou foi quando ele começou a falar sobre a polêmica com os peixes de incubação. As pessoas afirmam que querem peixes, mas apenas peixes que não sejam de incubação. Isso não é sustentável. As pessoas querem trabalhar na recuperação do habitat, mas não é possível recuperá-lo totalmente neste período de tempo. Ele destacou que devemos dar os primeiros passos para recuperar a população e depois trabalhar para o habitat. O dinheiro está sendo gasto na recuperação dos peixes sem qualquer responsabilização. Um grande problema com os Lummi e outras tribos Salish é que eles estão dedicando tempo e apoio financeiro para essas recuperações de peixes, mas não há uma meta de quantos peixes a NOAA tentará recuperar em um ano específico. Os Lummi querem trabalhar para atingir um nível de população de pescadores em 1989.

& # 8220É uma coisa saber. Acreditar nisso é outra. & # 8221 - Antigo Conselho da Nação Lummi Membro

A próxima oradora foi Ellie, a vice-chefe do Comitê de Pesca Lummi. O filho de Ellie e # 8217 sentou-se ao lado dela. Seu filho descreveu a pesca com rede de recife como um recife artificial que coleta peixes. & # 8220Os peixes nadariam ao longo do fundo, através de um caminho criado em algas marinhas, limitado aos lados por recifes e / ou ilhas. Ao encontrar a estrutura semelhante a uma treliça, que seria amarrada com grama marinha para criar um fundo falso, o peixe seria gentilmente empurrado para a rede propriamente dita. & # 82211 Ellie falou sobre o envolvimento da tribo Lummi e do # 8217s em Cherry Point. A invasão de suas terras por esses navios-tanque de carvão teria sido o fim da pesca Lummi. Como resultado, os povos Lummi construíram uma rede de recifes. A rede de recifes cria um grande exemplo de soberania indígena. Esta prática Lummi foi usada para proteger e defender a autoridade e soberania nativas. Isso remonta ao ex-membro do Conselho que disse: & # 8220 Uma coisa é saber. Outra é acreditar. & # 8221

Nos últimos 2 anos, os Lummi não conseguiram pescar sockeye. Ellie diz que se eles não pescarem nenhum este ano, os próximos 3 anos não parecerão nada bons para eles. Esta primeira metade do dia foi uma revelação para mim. Eles continuam a lutar por sua autoridade e soberba. Eles sabem que têm sua soberania. Eles têm que acreditar nisso agora.


Os primeiros

Esta vila de Coast Salish capturada por um artista em uma das expedições espanholas (1790-1792) à costa noroeste está situada de forma semelhante à antiga vila que ficava na baía de Garrison. Ele está localizado na água, na base de uma colina.

Uma mulher Lummi

A Ilha de San Juan tem sido um ímã para a habitação humana. Sua localização no cruzamento de três grandes cursos de água, além de portos protegidos, pradarias abertas e bosques isolados, atraíam pessoas que queriam arriscar uma vida ou encontrar descanso e relaxamento em meio a uma abundante fonte de alimento.

Os ancestrais do atual povo salish da costa do Estreito do Norte começaram a aparecer na esteira da camada de gelo continental, que começou a diminuir há 11.000 anos. Evidências arqueológicas sugerem que a ilha apoiou a caça e coleta entre 6.000 e 8.000 anos atrás. A cultura marinha encontrada pelos primeiros europeus na área desenvolveu-se cerca de 2.500 anos atrás, e vestígios de suas aldeias outrora prósperas permanecem nos montes de conchas encontrados ao longo da costa dos acampamentos americanos e ingleses e em todas as ilhas de San Juan.

Os ancestrais da Nação Lummi de hoje consideravam a Ilha de San Juan uma fonte abundante de alimento e um lugar sagrado. Esta imagem de uma família Lummi em trajes tradicionais provavelmente foi tirada por volta da virada do século XIX para o século XX.

Uma mulher da Costa Salish colhe mariscos na praia usando um pedaço de pau e uma cesta de fibras naturais. Clique na imagem para saber como uma tecelã contemporânea da Lummi, Anna Jefferson, praticava seu ofício da maneira tradicional.

Biblioteca do Congresso / Vídeo: Sistema de Bibliotecas do Condado de Whatcom (WCLS)

No início dos tempos históricos, os povos indígenas das Ilhas San Juan e áreas vizinhas do continente eram principalmente membros de seis Tribos Salish da Costa Central que falavam a língua do Estreito do Norte: Sooke, Saanich, Songhee, Lummi, Samish e Semiahmoo. Outra tribo Salish da Costa Central que entrou no país do Estreito do Norte falava o idioma Klallam (ou Clallam) intimamente relacionado.

In addition to sharing these languages, the Central Coast Salish tribes shared a culture and way of life through which they used a wide range of marine, riverine, and terrestrial resources. They followed patterns of seasonal movement between islands and the mainland and from large winter villages to smaller resource collection camps occupied in the other seasons. Because of the exposure to severe winter winds and storms of the Strait of Juan de Fuca, those sites found within the Cattle Point-Mount Finlayson-South Beach area were considered to be more likely seasonal subsistence and resource collection and processing camps, rather than permanent settlements.

o Lummi are one of the Coast Salish peoples whose ancestors lived in the San Juan Islands. Below are quotes from Lummi elders, which are examples of oral tradition. They are from a book called Lummi Elders Speak:

We had all kinds of food. We had food that was gathered and preserved for the winter like salmon and clams and berries. And fresh ducks. There are times when the weather is right and they would know just what to gather like a certain kind of berry. It took a lot of training and it took advice on how to do all of this. They didn't just go and gather too much food. They only gathered a lot of food when they were preparing for winter. -- Al Charles

We went out to the islands to get berries, fish. - Isadore Tom


When they were gathering food the Indian people never stopped in one place. Didn't have no reservation then. They went from place to place… They had seasons for these moves. Like right now there's the herring season… Steelhead run in December… They know when the clams are good. They know all these seasons. -
James Joseph

The Royal Marine detachment camp, shown in this c. 1865 painting, was built in March 1860 atop a shell midden left over more than 2,000 years before by Garrison Bay's first residents. Note the canoes in lower left. It appears as if the Indians are giving canoe paddling lessons to the Royal Marines.

The devastation of European diseases made the Coast Salish people vulnerable to slave raids from the Lekwiltok from Johnstone Straits on the east side of Vancouver Island. In response they built forts, which were described by Lt. Joseph Baker during the George Vancouver explorations.

Archaeologists call the way of life described by the Lummi elders a seasonal round. In a seasonal round, people live at different places during specific times of the year. At each place, certain plants and animals were ready to be harvested.

During the winter, they lived in villages near the shore. English Camp was an ideal spot for a village because it is on a quiet bay, protected from harsh winter winds by the surrounding hills. The quiet bay provided a safe place to dock canoes and fish during the winter.

Coast Salish families passed down sites for fishing, hunting, and gathering many plants. Cattle Point was an abundant site for gathering food. People fished for salmon off the coast and gathered large amounts of shellfish, and gathered camas bulbs and other plants from the prairie. They stored all of these foods for use in the winter.

European diseases, probably introduced by the 1774 Spanish voyage conducted by the navigator Juan Perez, reduced this population to a scattering of villages long before 1791, when the Isla y Archipelago de San Juan was first named by Francisco Eliza, a Spanish explorer charged with retrenching the Spanish presence in the Pacific Northwest. That same year Eliza reported that at Point Roberts, north of the archipelago, ". an incredible quantity of salmon and numerous Indians. " which the ethnologist, Dr. Wayne Suttles, speculated indicated the ancient technique of reef netting.

These bone harpoon points excavated by archaeological field school at American Camp date from 2,500 years ago to the early 19th century.

Fifty years later, in October 1853, James Alden of the U.S. Coast Survey enthused about the maritime resources. "Salmon abound in great quantities at certain seasons of the year, when the water in every direction seems to be filled with them…The Hudson's Bay Company has a fishing establishment at San Juan … where I am informed they have put up this season 600 barrels of salmon."

The Company purchased the fish from Lummi, Songee and other groups and processed them at salmon salting stations on the island starting in 1851. One blanket bought 60 fish, which, according to company records amounted to some 2,000 to 3,000 barrels a season.

The five salmon runs—king (chinook), sockeye, cohoe (silver), pink and chum-- were so extensive that, short of ecological disaster or broken rhythm, the Indians could not miss. Four methods were used: Hook line, encirclement, entanglement and entrapment. Hook and line involved trolling outboard in deep water and was employed mainly for the immediate consumption or later the fresh fish market. The species were mainly Kings and silvers.

Lummi master carver Jewell James was one of the keynote speakers during a ceremony at English Camp, a Lummi ancestral home.

In 1858 Caleb Kennerly, a naturalist with the Northwest Boundary Survey, proclaimed the Salmon Bank on the southern end of the island as "…perhaps the best fishing grounds on Puget Sound," where "numerous bands of Indians" seasonally encamped ashore. These included not only local Coast Salish groups, who plied reef nets, but also Northwest Coast people from the British Columbia coast and southeast Alaska. Those "with the proper appliances" for fishing could make money, Kennerly predicted.

Unfortunately for the American Indian and First Nations peoples, Kennerly's predictions came true.

Geologically speaking, the bank is a submerged ridge formed by moraines left by the glacier that receded starting about 11,000 years ago. But its cultural and economic impact reverberates to this day. Kennerly's "appliances" were profoundly realized in 1894 with the introduction of fish traps, an adaptation of the Indian reef nets, which could trap thousands of sockeye salmon in a single season. Motorized purse seiners, heretofore powered by oars, and the rising sports fishing market soon rivaled the traps.

The competition came to a head in 1934 when the fish traps were banned, and the job market slumped. By then the old Indian fishery, the camas patches and mounds of clam shells had slipped into memory.

Hopefully those memories will soon be refreshed as the Lummi Nation, in hopes of restoring the traditional reef netting methods, in July and August 2014 tested the waters off San Juan Island's western coastline. They beached a large canoe and camped on the English Camp shoreline (once known as Smuh-yuh (phonetic spelling), according Suttles) probably for the first time since the 19th century.

November is National Native American Heritage Month. The Library of Congress, National Archives and Records Administration, National Endowment for the Humanities, National Gallery of Art, National Park Service, Smithsonian Institution and United States Holocaust Memorial Museum join in paying tribute to the rich ancestry and traditions of Native Americans.


A Native American tribe demands the return of its spiritual relative — an orca

BELLINGHAM, Wash. (RNS) — Whales are a staple in the waters off the Pacific Northwest.

The local culture is so wrapped up in a whale identity that Seattle’s metro bus cards are called “orca” passes for the type of whale also known as killer.

“I believe we have orcas in our soul in this state,” Washington Gov. Jay Inslee said last spring.

And the native tribes see them as spiritual relatives.

That’s why not only the locals but also people around the world were transfixed for 17 days this past summer as a 20-year-old orca — known as J-35 or Tahlequah — birthed a calf, only to see it die a half-hour later. When The Seattle Times asked for reaction, more than 1,000 people responded, expressing their grief through poems, art, even a killer-whale ballet.

Then J-50, another female orca, died of starvation from a shortage of chinook salmon in overfished Puget Sound. The publicity led to demands that four dams on the Lower Snake River be removed to increase migrating salmon runs and that water levels increase to save the local group of orcas from extinction. Only 74 are left, and the prognosis for their survival is poor.

Few take their plight as personally as the Lummi Nation, one of several coastal Indian tribes that occupy land from British Columbia south to Oregon. Their 21,000-acre reservation stretches across the western flank of Bellingham, Wash., a city just south of the Canadian border.

A female orca, right, known as J-35 or Tahlequah, is seen pushing the body of her dead newborn calf in the Salish Sea on July 25, 2018. Photo courtesy of Ken Balcomb, Center for Whale Research

The Lummis refer to the whales as “qwe lhol mechen,” or “people that live under the water.” The tribe sees the whole Tahlequah affair as a wordless warning from the whales that, environmentally, time is running out.

“These are their relatives under the water going extinct,” said Kurt Russo, a non-Lummi who is a senior strategist for the tribe’s Sovereignty and Treaty Protection Office. “This is a fight for their relatives. This is our sacred obligation.”

The Tahlequah drama is simultaneous with the tribe’s campaign to force a seaquarium 3,000 miles away to return its prize performing orca to the waters where she once lived — among the San Juan Islands, an archipelago in Washington state.

It was among those island waters — specifically Whidbey Island’s Penn Cove — that a few dozen orcas were snatched in the summer of 1970 and sold to various theme parks, decimating the gene pool of remaining whales. The event, which involved planes and explosives and resulted in the deaths of five whales, infuriated local residents. Since then, all the whales captured that summer have died except one.

Master carver Jewell James plays a drum during a rally in May 2018. Photo © Nancy Bleck Slanay Sp’ak’wus

The tribe calls her Tokitae. And now they’re redoubling their efforts to return her to the native waters of the Salish Sea to be reunited with her mother. An exhibit that opened Saturday (Dec. 8) at the Florida Museum of Natural History in Gainesville tells her story.

Tokitae was captured Aug. 8, 1970, as a 4-year-old, then renamed Lolita by her new owners at the Miami Seaquarium. The now-52-year-old orca has been the subject of numerous efforts — including those of a former Washington state governor, the mayor of Miami Beach and the Miami Beach city commission — to get her back to the waters of Puget Sound.

“Tokitae is a symbol of a relationship we’ve condoned,” said Jewell Praying Wolf James, the master totem carver for the Lummi Nation who wears a black hoodie decorated with a stylized red and white orca. “Here’s a being who used to roam the waters who’s now enclosed in a tank that’s always in the sun.”

James is one of the more public voices for the Lummis. His 16-foot totem of the hapless Tokitae made a national tour last spring in an effort to pressure the Seaquarium to release the whale. The totem, painted in black, white, red and blue, shows the whale with a large blue oval and a mouthful of bared teeth. A male figure sits atop the figure to symbolize how the tribe had married into the whales and became one of them so as to bring whales into the human family.

Bellingham Unitarian Fellowship held a dedicatory service for the totem May 9 before a trip by a car caravan from Washington state to Miami. A Lummi demonstration in front of the Seaquarium on May 27 later got no response from officials there other than to say Lolita is safe where she is.

The totem pole of Tokitae, or Lolita, is parked in front of the Miami Seaquarium in May 2018. The orca Lolita has been in captivity since 1970. Photo © Paul Anderson

Her story is a 21st – century version of “Free Willy,” the 1993 film that ramped up support for the freeing of Keiko, a killer whale trapped in a Mexico marine park. Keiko was eventually freed in 2002, but, unable to contact the whale pod in which he had been born, died a year later.

The Lummis won’t give up until Tokitae too is back in their ancestral waters where her whale pod — led by Tokitae’s mother — still swims. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration says orcas typically live 50-60 years in the wild, but it’s not unusual for females to last up to 80-90 years.

Meanwhile, the Tokitae/Lolita drama might have slipped away unnoticed had it not been for the Tahlequah drama that captivated the media in July and August.

On Oct. 9, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit, which includes Florida, rejected a petition to reopen a lawsuit to get the Seaquarium to release the whale. The ruling sentenced Lolita to “a lifetime of physical and psychological harm,” said Jared Goodman, general counsel for the People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals.

“If you were to be outside the Miami Seaquarium most nights, you can hear her calling,” Russo said. “She has called every night for 47 years. If you were to hear her mother’s call, they are identical. They are telling us something.”

Lolita performs a show at Miami Seaquarium in 2011. Photo by Leonardo DaSilva/Creative Commons
Lolita the whale performs a show with staff at Miami Seaquarium in 2009. Photo by Isabelle Puaut/Creative Commons

Unitarians and others religious groups have backed the Lummis. Unitarian Universalist congregations are based on seven principles, “four of them having to do with social and environmental justice,” said Deb Cruz, a member of the Bellingham Unitarian Fellowship and president of Justice Washington, a state action network involving social justice issues.

Tribal members haven’t forgotten the days when Indian children were sent to boarding schools in Salem, Ore., and Lynden and Everett, Wash., in the early 1900s. They were forbidden to speak their tribal dialects and by the 1980s, certain Coast Salish languages were almost extinct. They have been reclaimed only through extensive efforts by the tribes.

Tokitae is seen as a modern-day “child” undergoing the same exile that Indian children once did and to this day, her removal from Puget Sound is referred to as an “abduction.”

“For the Lummis, it’s like your cousin is in captivity,” said Jessie Dye, program and outreach director for Earth Ministry, a faith-based environmental stewardship and advocacy nonprofit in Seattle. “You want to get her out.”

A map of the San Juan Islands in the Salish Sea. Image courtesy of Creative Commons

Dye has helped round up support for coastal tribes among the 500 member congregations of Earth Ministry, but faith groups haven’t always been so responsive. It wasn’t until 1987 that bishops and denominational executives around the Pacific Northwest offered a public apology to Coast Salish tribes for taking part in the destruction of Native spiritual practices. In 1997, they reaffirmed that apology.

“One of the reasons we have this collaboration is the tribes — as much as they’ve been harmed by the Christian community — speak the same language,” she said. “They too talk of a Creator. Every religious denomination in the Abrahamic traditions speaks on stewardship. Not one of them would say letting a species such as the orca go extinct is good stewardship of God’s creation.”

Dye has gathered more than 100 signatures from religious organizations across the region for an orca task force convened by the governor earlier this year. The most radical short-term fix would involve removing four to six dams across the state.

Orcas feast on adult chinook salmon, whose numbers in the state’s rivers have dropped by at least half in the past 25 years. Dams block the journeys of young salmon from their spawning beds inland to the ocean and then back to Puget Sound. One reason Tahlequah’s baby may have died is that the mother was underfed and her calf was born malnourished.

It might take only a few months to dismantle the dams, but that solution pits the tribes, many scientists and western Washington residents against farmers in eastern Washington who oppose the dams’ removal.

Russo, the tribe’s senior strategist, believes the return of Tokitae would be a needed shot in the arm not only for the dam removal movement but also for the whales themselves.

“There is going to be a moment in the future when Tokitae is going to be out from her sanctuary and she will have echolocated her mother, and Tokitae and her mother are going to break through the water together,” he said. “That’s what they do when they have a reunion. This is a spiritual undertaking. It’s not just about bringing a whale home. This is about reunion and remembrance and healing.”

Demonstrators welcome the totem pole of Tokitae, or Lolita, with a sign as it arrives at Miami Seaquarium on May 27, 2018. Photo © SacredSea.org

(An exhibit and film presentation on orcas runs through May 5, 2019, at the Florida Museum of Natural History in Gainesville. The totem pole of Tokitae, carved by Jewell James, will be displayed and a floor-to-ceiling video will feature underwater footage of the orca, along with the voices of Lummi elders. )


Lummi Nation totem pole making journey to Biden

BELLINGHAM, Wash. (AP) - A totem pole carved at the Lummi Nation from a 400-year-old red cedar will begin a cross-country journey next month, evoking an urgent call to protect sacred lands and waters of Indigenous people.

The journey, called the Red Road to DC, will culminate in early June in Washington, D.C., The Seattle Times reported.

The expedition will start at the Lummi Nation outside Bellingham, Washington, and will make stops at Nez Perce traditional lands Bears Ears National Monument in Utah the Grand Canyon Chaco Canyon, New Mexico the Black Hills of South Dakota and the Missouri River, at the crossing of the Dakota Access Pipeline, where thousands protested its construction near Native lands.

This fall, the pole will be featured at the Smithsonian National Museum of the American Indian. A special exhibition was developed by The Natural History Museum and House of Tears Carvers at the Lummi Nation, which is gifting the pole to the Biden administration.

Head carver and Lummi tribal member Jewell Praying Wolf James said he and a team ranging in age from 4 to 70 carved the pole beginning this winter.


A Totem Pole Carved by Lummi Nation Citizens As a Gift for Biden Prepares for Epic Journey to Washington

BELLINGHAM, Wash. — A 24-foot totem pole carved by Lummi Nation tribal members is getting its finishing touches this week before embarking on a cross country journey—deemed the Red Road to D.C.— from Washington state to Washington D.C. next month as a gift to the Biden administration.

Along the way, the pole will make stops—accompanied by a team of about a dozen of its carvers—at sacred Native American sites in Idaho, Utah, Arizona, New Mexico and South Dakota before reaching its final destination: the Smithsonian’s National Museum of the American Indian, where it will be displayed this fall.

The purpose of the journey is to bring recognition, honor, and calls to prayer for sacred sites threatened by development and resource extraction, according to the main carver, Jewell Praying Wolf James. James is the only surviving member of the Lummi Nation’s House of Tears Carvers.

“We’re going to be working with local tribes to perform various blessing ceremonies and working together to help each other watch out for these sacred sites so that corporations or governments don’t go in and needlessly destroy them,” James said in a recorded interview where he describes the symbols chiseled into the 400-year-old red cedar.

Courtesy Sul ka dub (Freddie Lane, Lummi Tribe)

Among the traditional Native lands the totem pole will make stops at on its journey across the United States is Bears Ears National Monument in Utah, a protected area where Navajo Nation citizens are currently calling upon the Biden administration to restore and expand after its protected acreage was shrunk by 85 percent under former President Donald Trump.

Other stops include the Black Hills of South Dakota and the Missouri River, where the Dakota Access Pipeline crosses just half a mile upstream of the Lummi Nation’s reservation. Earlier this month, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers said they will allow DAPL to continue to flow without a federal permit, despite strong pressure by Native Americans and environmental groups that had their hopes up that the Biden administration would order the pipeline be shut down.

This week, the group announced that, due to an earlier-than-expected completion of the totem pole, it will first embark on a grassroots organized tour of the West Coast prior to heading east. The group will head south to San Diego from the end of April through May 24, making stops at tribal territories along the way, said Freddie Sul ka dub Lane, Lummi Nation citizen and Northwest tour organizer.

The cross-country stops will be lived streamed from the following locations, according to the Red Road to D.C. website. For live updates, interested spectators can follow updates on the group’s Facebook page.

Lummi Nation carvers aged four years old to 70 participated in the construction of the totem pole, James said. Each carving on the pole gives nod to specific Native American folklore and tribal connections that span beyond the Canadian and Mexican border, he explained in his artist’s statement.

The pole includes Chinook salmon, a wolf, a bear, an eagle, and seven tears—a reference to seven generations of trauma passed on from colonialism. Additionally, the pole includes an image of a child in jail in reference to the U.S.-Mexico border issues and the bloodline relationship of immigrants seeking entry to the country whose lands they once occupied. “Those are our people over there,” James said.

Courtesy Sul ka dub (Freddie Lane, Lummi Tribe)

According to the head carver, working on totem poles opens up a path to the spirit. He said he hopes the gifted pole will transmit that spirit to Washington D.C. and allow the Biden administration to follow through on their treaty obligations.

The Smithsonian’s National Museum of the American Indian Acting Director, Machel Monenerkit, said in a statement to Native News Online that the museum serves as a venue to foster dialogue about the important contemporary issues impacting Indian Country.

“The journey of the Lummi Nation's totem pole raises awareness of sacred sites threatened by development and resource extraction,” she said. “We look forward to finalizing the details on when and how to mark the occasion of its arrival to the museum.”

James agreed that the purpose of the Red Road to D.C. journey, at its core, is to drive conversation.

“Many of us believe that the United States owes it to us to listen. They entered into a sacred relationship with us, some people call it a treaty,” James said. “But they use their voices to promise. To us, when you use your voice, it takes the sacred wind and the great spirit gives you the energy to talk, and your commitment is one of spiritual significance to Native Americans. We hope by bringing this totem pole to Washington, D.C., we’ll also awaken the sacred commitment the United States has to the Native American Nations.”

Dates and destinations for the Red Road to D.C.:

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Lummi Tribe of the Lummi Reservation

The federally recognized Lummi Nation is the third largest tribe in Washington State. The Lummi are the original inhabitants of Washington’s northernmost coast and southern British Columbia. For thousands of years, they have lived on the shores and waters of Puget Sound.

Official Tribal Name: Lummi Tribe of the Lummi Reservation

Endereço: 2665 Kwina Road, Bellingham, WA 98226
Phone: (360) 312-2260
Fax: (360) 384-0803
Email:

Recognition Status: Federally Recognized

Traditional Name / Traditional Meaning:

Lhaq’temish, meaning People of the Sea, or The Lummi People

Common Name / Meaning of Common Name:

Alternate names / Alternate spellings / Misspellings:

Name in other languages:

State(s) Today: Washington

Traditional Territory:

The Lummi are the original inhabitants of Washington’s northernmost coast and southern British Columbia. For thousands of years, they have lived on the shores and waters of Puget Sound. The Lummi people traditionally lived near the sea and in mountain areas and returned seasonally to their longhouses located at a number of sites on the present reservation and on the San Juan Islands.

Confederacy: Salish

The Lummi Nation signed the treaty of Point Elliot in 1855 ceding much of their aboriginal lands in western Washington. In return they received a reservation that originally covered 15,000 acres. Today, approximately 12,000 acres remain in Indian control.

Reservation: Lummi Reservation

The reservation occupies a small peninsula between Bellingham Bay and Georgia Strait.The Lummi Reservation is seven miles northwest of Bellingham, Washington, in the western portion of Whatcom County 95 miles north of Seattle. The reservation is a five mile long peninsula which forms Lummi Bay on the west, Bellingham Bay on the east, with a smaller peninsula of Sandy Point, Portage Island and the associated tidelands.
Land Area: 12,000 acres, with 2,126 square miles along Canadian border between Cascade Mountains and Georgia Strait.
Tribal Headquarters: Bellingham, WA
Time Zone: Pacífico

Population at Contact:

Registered Population Today:

Tribal Enrollment Requirements:

Genealogy Resources:

Charter: In 1948 the Lummi Nation adopted a Tribal Constitution.
Name of Governing Body: Tribal Council
Number of Council members: 11
Dates of Constitutional amendments: Amended and ratified in 1970, which created the present government structure.
Number of Executive Officers: 4 – Chairman, Vice-Chairman, Secretary, Treasurer

All tribal members are members of the General Council which meets at least once a year at which time one-third of the Tribal Council is elected. The council appoints tribal members to serve on committees that oversee tribal enterprises on behalf of the Council.

Language Classification:

Language Dialects:

Number of fluent Speakers:

Bands, Gens, and Clans:

Related Tribes:

Traditional Allies:

Traditional Enemies:

Ceremonies / Dances:

Modern Day Events & Tourism:

Lummi Stommish Water Festival in June.

Legends / Oral Stories:

Art & Crafts:

Subsistance:

The Lummi Indians were fishermen and semi-sedentary hunter gatherers. Smoke-dried seafood, camas bulbs, sun-dried berries and all species of shellfish, crab, salmon, trout, elk, deer, and other land and sea mammals made up the traditional Lummi diet.

Economy Today:

Food processing, wood products, petroleum refining, manufacturing, and agriculture. Other tribal enterprises include the Lummi Mini Mart, Lummi Fisherman’s Cove, and 260 Tobacco & Fine Spirits .

Religion & Spiritual Beliefs:

They expressed their language and religious traditions through elaborate carvings on totems and ceremonies.

Burial Customs:

Wedding Customs

Education and Media:

Tribal College: Northwest Indian College (NWIC)
Radio:
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How Native Americans were vaccinated against smallpox, then pushed off their land

More than 180 years ago, the federal government launched the largest effort of its kind in the United States to vaccinate Native Americans against the deadly disease of smallpox.

With it ravaging Native American communities in the 1830s, the disease became a widespread public health crisis and threatened to curtail the government’s massive effort to force thousands of Native Americans from their lands in the East and push them West to reservations.

In 1832, Congress passed legislation — the Indian Vaccination Act — that allowed the federal government to use about $17,000 to hire doctors to vaccinate Native Americans who were living near White frontier settlements. Many White settlers feared that Indians would spread the disease to them.

The act was intended to vaccinate Indians against smallpox but for entirely mercenary reasons, according to Regis Pecos, a member of the Pueblo de Cochiti tribe in New Mexico.

“It wasn’t in the interest of Indian people,” said Pecos, who is also co-director of the Leadership Institute at the Santa Fe Indian School. “It was a way of vaccinating them to move them so White Americans could move them into Western lands.”

Fast forward to the 21st century, when the coronavirus pandemic has swept through the more than 500 federally recognized tribes in the United States and devastated some tribal communities. Native Americans have among the worst infection rates in the country — nearly three times higher than the overall U.S. population.

Tribes across the country are racing to get vaccine doses to their members and launching messaging campaigns to try to persuade Native Americans who may be reluctant to take them. The level of reluctance to take a vaccine stems from decades of mistrust between sovereign nations and the federal government, according to Native American medical experts, including over medical and scientific studies that were conducted in unethical ways.

“Historical trauma over these past wrongs is embedded in the DNA for some of our people,” said Dakotah Lane, a doctor and member of the Lummi Nation, recently told Indian Country Today.

“We need to remember that our communities have survived TB and smallpox, and a long history of lies and wrongdoing by the federal government,” said Lane, who is also the Lummi’s health director.

Donald Warne, an Oglala Lakota doctor from the Pine Ridge Reservation, said the Indian Removal Act, the massacre at Wounded Knee and other atrocities have contributed to vaccine hesitancy. And so has the memory of the distribution of blankets infected with smallpox, which he calls “the first documented case of bioterrorism with the purpose of killing American Indians.”

When the vaccinations started to roll out to communities across the United States, Anthony S. Fauci, the nation’s top infectious-disease doctor, announced on national television, “The cavalry is coming!”

For Native Americans, the reference to the cavalry was disturbing, not reassuring.

“To Indian people, it signifies the beginning of a massacre. It references the threat of soldiers on horseback during the Indian Wars,” Pecos said.

The history of Native Americans being mistreated in scientific and medical research is lengthy.

In the 1990s, a DNA study done among the Havasupai Tribe in Arizona took blood samples from tribal members in what was supposed to be a survey on high rates of diabetes. But the samples were used in unauthorized studies that challenged the tribe’s traditional ways of teaching. Arizona State University, which helped oversee the study, eventually settled and paid the Havasupai $700,000 after the tribe filed a lawsuit.

In 1975, Government Accountability Office investigators found that medical studies and drug treatments — overseen by the Indian Health Service — had been done without parents’ consent on Native American kids who suffered from trachoma, an infectious eye disease caused by bacteria, at Indian boarding schools in the late 1960s and early 1970s.

Because the IHS oversaw boarding schools, the agency and the Proctor Foundation for Research in Ophthalmology at the University of California, which did the trachoma experiments, defended their work without consent, saying they “believed it was not necessary since IHS acts as legal guardian for the children while they attend the boarding schools.”

At one point, the researchers told investigators that because the medical studies had started and the “school year was already underway, they believed that it would confuse the parents if they began seeking informed consent at that time.”

Another case the GAO looked at from the 1970s found that more than 3,400 Native American women under 21 who suffered from mental health issues were involuntarily sterilized in parts of Arizona, Oklahoma and New Mexico.

The sterilizations, the report said, were not classified as “voluntary and therapeutic” in the IHS system.

Similarly, at the White Mountain Apache reservation in Arizona, studies for pulmonary disease were done among Native American children, but overseers later found that parents in many instances had not given full consent for testing.

That type of history in medical abuse cases resonates in what Pecos calls “generational trauma.”

“There are older members in our communities who have lived and experienced those times, or their parents, grandparents or great-grandparents did, and they remember,” Pecos said. “It is not just something in a distant past.”

At Lane’s tribe, the Lummi Nation outside Bellingham, Wash., there are still many tribal elders and other members who recall how researchers came onto the reservation in the early 1980s and asked to do research on children with problems.

The tribe gave an “informal consent” to the researcher, according to Lane. He said the researcher interviewed families and kids and eventually took pictures and used them in educational classes for others in the medical community.

But some of the families who had participated in the research were not clearly told that their child had fetal alcohol syndrome and were surprised when they saw their pictures being used in presentations and hearing that they had the disease.

“Some got up and said, ‘I didn’t know that,’ ” Lane said. “ ‘How dare you use that picture.’ ”

The tribe later formed a review board that oversees and approves any scientific research done at the reservation and to tribal members, and that group has been actively involved in reviewing the tribe’s participation in vaccinations against the coronavirus.

In the Navajo Nation, the largest tribe that occupies land stretching across New Mexico, Arizona and Utah, many members still vividly remember how researchers came to the reservation in the 1990s and wanted to look at an outbreak of the “hantavirus,” a pulmonary illness that was dubbed the “Navajo flu” by some researchers.

The disease “stigmatized the Navajo and led them to develop and tighten their response and participation in medical research,” according to Lane.

This winter, Navajo Nation President Jonathan Nez encouraged the roughly 173,000 people who live on the reservation to get vaccinated against the coronavirus, which has devastated their community. He said tribal leaders have worked hard to overcome the “distrust in Indian Country of government” and science.

But during the brutal smallpox outbreak nearly two centuries ago, politics played a role in the rollout of the vaccine for Native Americans, as officials used their positions to “selectively protect American Indian nations who were involved in treaties favorable to the U.S.,” J. Diane Pearson wrote in an article for the University of Minnesota Press called “Lewis Cass and the Politics of Disease: The Indian Vaccination Act of 1832.”

“Indian nations viewed as aggressor nations” were not vaccinated, Pearson said.

In Ohio, the Seneca and Shawnee tribes had chiefs who refused to leave their lands to head west because they had heard of the smallpox epidemic wiping out tribes west of the Mississippi River. One group of Chickasaws “who were unprotected from smallpox were moved into a country ablaze with smallpox,” Pearson wrote.

“Vaccinations,” Pearson wrote, “were used to enable Indian removal, to permit relocation of Native Americans to reservations, to consolidate and compact reservation communities, to expedite westward expansion of the United States, and to protect Indian nations viewed as friendly or economically important to the United States.”

The smallpox epidemic nearly wiped out three tribes — the Mandan, Arikara and Hidatsa. Their combined population plummeted from 10,000 to 160 in one year. They combined to stay alive and are what’s now known as the Three Affiliated Tribes in central North Dakota.

In 1838, an agent overseeing the Sioux in South Dakota reported to a government superintendent how some Native Americans in the Great Plains were being wiped out from smallpox they’d gotten from White traders. Joshua Pilcher, a 47-year-old Virginian, wrote that “half of the Hidatsa had died, as had half of the Arikara,” according to a 2005 article in the Smithsonian Magazine.

“The great band of [Assiniboine], say 10,000 strong, and the Crees numbering about 3,000 have been almost annihilated. … The disease had reached the Blackfeet of the Rocky Mountains,” Pilcher wrote. “All the Indians on the Columbia River as far as the Pacific Ocean will share the fate of those before alluded to.”

The Indians of the Great Plains, Pilcher said, were “literally depopulated and converted into one great graveyard.”


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