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Colônia Delaware - História

Colônia Delaware - História


Os holandeses reivindicaram direitos sobre Delaware com base na exploração da área. No entanto, os holandeses colonizaram Delaware pela primeira vez depois de comprarem as terras dos nativos americanos. Eles fundaram o assentamento de Zwaanendael em 1631. Os nativos americanos destruíram o assentamento original. Quando mais colonos chegaram, decidiu-se transferi-los para a Nova Holanda. Os holandeses dispensaram Peter Minuit. Minuit liderou os suecos que decidiram se estabelecer na mesma área, e um assentamento da Nova Suécia. O novo assentamento sueco foi denominado “Fort Christina”. Os holandeses nunca aceitaram as reivindicações suecas. Em setembro de 1655, os holandeses capturaram a colônia sueca. Eles rebatizaram a colônia de “Nova Amstel”.

Depois que os britânicos capturaram a Nova Holanda, eles enviaram uma força para baixo e capturaram New Amstel. Os britânicos mudaram seu nome para “New Castle”. A colônia mudou-se para frente e para trás - primeiro sendo parte de Nova York, depois parte de Maryland. Finalmente, a colônia ficou sob o controle de William Penn. Penn tentou transformar a colônia de Delaware em parte da Pensilvânia. No entanto, ele achou difícil governá-los juntos. Em 1701, Penn concordou que as duas colônias poderiam ser governadas com assembléias separadas.


Linha do tempo da história de Delaware

Delaware foi habitada há quase 10.000 anos, e uma sucessão de várias culturas ocupou a área até o primeiro contato europeu. Naquela época, os índios Leni-Lenape (Delaware) ocupavam o norte de Delaware, enquanto várias tribos, incluindo Nanticoke e Assateague, habitavam o sul de Delaware.

Os Lenape, bandos culturalmente organizados de nativos americanos, estabeleceram-se ao longo do rio Delaware por volta de 1400. Em 1600, os Minquas (batizados com o nome da palavra Lenape para "traiçoeiro") do Vale do Rio Susquehanna atacam suas aldeias. Dois grupos de nativos americanos estão presentes na região de Delaware na virada do século 16: os Lenape e os Nanticoke.

O primeiro dos 13 estados originais a ratificar a Constituição federal, Delaware ocupa um pequeno nicho no corredor urbano Boston-Washington, D.C. ao longo da costa do Atlântico Médio. É o segundo menor estado do país e um dos mais populosos.

Linha do tempo da história do Delaware do século 15

1400 - Os Lenni Lenape, nativos americanos dos Algonkians, se estabelecem ao longo do Delaware.

Linha do tempo da história do Delaware do século 17

1600 - Minquas, do Vale do Rio Susquehanna, começou a atacar as aldeias do Lenni Lenape.

1609 - Henry Hudson, um inglês que navegava pela Companhia Holandesa das Índias Orientais, descobre a baía e o rio de Delaware.

1610 - O capitão Samuel Argall, um capitão do mar inglês, dá à baía e ao rio o nome de Lord De La Warr, o governador da Virgínia.

1631 - Colonos holandeses se estabelecem em Zwaanendael (local dos atuais Lewes).

1632 - O assentamento em Zwaanendael é destruído e todos os colonos mortos em disputa com os nativos americanos.

1638 - Peter Minuet lidera um grupo de suecos para o Delaware e estabelece o Forte Christina (agora Wilmington), o primeiro assentamento permanente no Delaware e o início da Nova Colônia da Suécia.

1639 - O primeiro africano no Delaware, Black Anthony, é trazido do Caribe para Fort Christina.

1640 - O primeiro ministro luterano na América, o reverendo Reorus Torkillus, chega ao Forte Christina.

1643 - Johan Printz torna-se governador da Nova Colônia da Suécia.

1651 - Peter Stuyvesant, governador holandês de New Netherland, constrói o Forte Casimir (agora Novo Castelo) a poucos quilômetros ao sul do Forte Christina no Delaware.

1654 - Os suecos capturam o Forte Casimir e o renomeiam como Forte Trinity.

1659 - Lewes é fundado.

1655 - Os holandeses derrotaram os suecos no Delaware, encerrando a Nova Colônia da Suécia. Delaware torna-se parte de New Netherland.

1664 - Expedição liderada pelo coronel Sir Richard Nicolls, um dos quatro comissários nomeados pela Coroa para realizar a aquisição militar dos territórios holandeses na América. Nicolls escolheu Sir Robert Carr para subjugar os holandeses no rio Sul (Delaware). Sir Robert Carr expulsa os holandeses do Delaware e reivindica as terras para James, duque de York. Delaware se torna uma colônia inglesa.

1673 - Os holandeses recuperam o controle do Delaware.

1674 - Os ingleses recuperam o Delaware

1681 - William Penn recebeu terras da Inglaterra, que incluía Delaware, e estabeleceu a colônia da Pensilvânia.

1682 - O duque de York transfere o controle da Colônia de Delaware para o quacre inglês William Penn.

1698 - A Igreja da Santíssima Trindade, Antiga Igreja Sueca, foi construída em Wilmington.

1698-1700 - Piratas, incluindo o Capitão Kidd, navegam ao longo do Delaware.

Linha do tempo da história do Delaware do século 18

1704 - A primeira assembléia dos Três Condados de Delaware em Delaware, separada da Pensilvânia, se reúne em New Castle.

1717 - Cidade de Dover planejada.

1731 - Thomas Willing funda Willingtown.

1739 - Willingtown recebe autorização real e é renomeado como Wilmington.

1742 - Oliver Canby constrói um moinho de farinha em Brandywine River em Wilmington, dando início a uma grande indústria comercial de moagem de farinha.

1760 - 35.000 pessoas viviam na região de Delaware.

1761 - James Adams instala a primeira impressora em Delaware em Wilmington.

1763 - A guerra francesa e indiana termina em 1763 e a Grã-Bretanha ganha o controle de todas as terras anteriormente detidas pela França. A Inglaterra paga a guerra aumentando os impostos sobre suas colônias americanas. As restrições aos colonos acabaram levando a uma luta pela independência da coroa.

1764 - Charles Mason e Jeremiah Dixon pesquisam a fronteira oeste de Delaware.

1765 - Caesar Rodney e Thomas McKean representam Delaware no Stamp Act Congress.

1767-68 - John Dickinson escreve Cartas de um fazendeiro na Pensilvânia, um protesto influente contra as políticas britânicas em relação às colônias.

1774 - Caesar Rodney, Thomas McKean e George Read representam Delaware no Primeiro Congresso Continental.

1775 - Guerra Revolucionária começou

  • 15 de junho - a Assembleia de Delaware declara a independência da Inglaterra. Esta é a origem do feriado chamado Dia da Separação.
  • 1o e 2 de julho - César Rodney faz uma viagem heróica durante a noite de Dover à Filadélfia para dar o voto que colocou Delaware do lado da independência.
  • Três condados inferiores haviam se separado da Pensilvânia. Eles adotaram uma constituição e se tornaram o estado de Delaware, a primeira de todas as colônias a se autodenominar um estado.
  • Dover substitui New Castle como capital do estado.
  • Final de agosto e início de setembro: os exércitos britânico e americano estão no norte do condado de New Castle.
  • 3 de setembro: Batalha da ponte de Cooch perto de Newark, único engajamento na guerra em Delaware.
  • 12 de setembro - os britânicos capturam documentos do estado de Delaware, fundos e o presidente John McKinly após vencer a Batalha de Brandywine, ocupando Wilmington até meados de outubro.

1779 - A Assembleia de Delaware ratifica os Artigos da Confederação.

1784 - Thomas Coke e Francis Asbury se encontram na Capela Barratt em Frederica, estabelecendo a Igreja Metodista como uma denominação separada nos Estados Unidos

1785 - Oliver Evans constrói um protótipo de moinho de farinha automático em Newport.
Delaware Gazette, primeiro jornal do estado, começa a ser publicado.

1786 - Delaware é um dos 5 estados que enviaram delegados à Convenção de Annapolis, que esperava revisar os Artigos da Confederação.

1787 - 7 de dezembro - Delaware ratificou a Constituição dos Estados Unidos e se tornou o primeiro estado da União.

1788-89 - Sociedades abolicionistas estabelecidas em Dover e Wilmington.

1791 - A sede do condado de Sussex foi transferida de Lewes para Georgetown.

1792 - Delaware adota a segunda constituição do estado e mudou seu nome para Estado de Delaware.

1795 - Bank of Delaware, o primeiro banco do estado, fundado em Wilmington.

  • Navio britânico DeBraak afunda em Lewes.
  • A epidemia de febre amarela se espalha da Filadélfia a Wilmington.

Linha do tempo da história do Delaware do século 19

1802 - O francês eleuthere Irenee du Pont fundou uma fábrica de pólvora perto de Wilmington.
duPont de Nemours começa a fabricar pólvora ao longo do rio Brandywine, perto de Wilmington.

1805 - Primeira reunião campal metodista realizada perto de Esmirna.

1807 - César A. Rodney nomeado Procurador-Geral dos Estados Unidos pelo Presidente Thomas Jefferson.

1808 - Newport and Gap Turnpike torna-se a primeira estrada com pedágio em Delaware.

1812-13 - Peter Spencer funda a Igreja Metodista Protestante da União Africana. AUMP é a primeira denominação da nação controlada inteiramente por afro-americanos.

  • Os britânicos bombardeiam Lewes durante a guerra de 1812.
  • O Dr. James Tilton foi nomeado Cirurgião Geral do Exército dos EUA.
  • O Comodoro Thomas Macdonough derrota British no Lago Champlain.
  • James A. Bayard é um dos signatários americanos do Tratado de Ghent, encerrando a Guerra de 1812.
  • Big Quarterly, ou August Quarterly, iniciado por Peter Spencer, fundador da Igreja Protestante Metodista da União Africana, em Wilmington. O primeiro grande festival religioso negro da América continua no século 21.

1818 - Começa a construção do quebra-mar de Delaware com um quilômetro de extensão, concluída em 1835.

1828 - A linha Steamboat abre entre Filadélfia e New Castle.

  • O Canal Chesapeake e Delaware é aberto.
  • A Lei da Escola Livre de Delaware é aprovada no legislativo criando as primeiras escolas públicas do estado.
  • Louis McLane nomeado Secretário do Tesouro dos Estados Unidos.
  • Inauguração da nova ferrovia Castle and Frenchtown. Cobrindo uma milha e meia no início, ele usou carros puxados por cavalos por quase um ano antes de mudar para o serviço a vapor em 1832.
  • Delaware adota a terceira constituição.
  • Primeiro pomar de pessegueiro plantado em Delaware. Estado logo se torna grande produtor comercial de pêssegos.
  • A Universidade de Delaware foi fundada como Newark College.
  • Louis McLane nomeado Secretário de Estado dos Estados Unidos.

1838 - Inauguração da ferrovia Philadelphia, Wilmington e Baltimore.

1844 - O Bangor, O primeiro navio a vapor de hélice com casco de ferro da América, lançado em Wilmington.

1847 - O Senado de Delaware considera um ato para abolir a escravidão. O ato é derrotado por um voto.

1849 - John M. Clayton nomeado Secretário de Estado dos Estados Unidos.

1852 - Organização da Delaware Railroad Company.

1855 - Lei de proibição em todo o estado promulgada revogada, 1857.

1856 - A ferrovia de Delaware foi concluída de Seaford a Delmar em 1859.

  • Embora seja um estado escravista, Delaware rejeita o convite para ingressar na Confederação.
  • A convenção de paz em Dover favorece o reconhecimento pacífico da Confederação.
  • Tropas da Filadélfia guarnecem o Forte Delaware, que se torna campo de prisioneiros.

1862 - A legislatura de Delaware rejeita a oferta do presidente Lincoln de comprar seus escravos.

1861-65 - Delaware permaneceu na União durante a Guerra Civil (1861-1865). Mais de 12.000 Delawareans lutaram pelo Norte e algumas centenas lutaram pelo Sul. No final da guerra, todos os escravos foram libertados.

1865 - Décima terceira emenda à Constituição dos Estados Unidos abole a escravidão. A legislatura de Delaware vota contra a emenda.

1867 - Estabelecida a Howard High School, a primeira escola de Delaware para afro-americanos.

1868 - A 14ª Emenda da Constituição dos Estados Unidos garante proteção igual para todas as raças sob a lei. A legislatura de Delaware vota contra a emenda.

1869 - Primeira convenção de sufrágio feminino em Delaware

  • O primeiro resort oceânico é inaugurado em Rehoboth Beach.
  • A décima quinta emenda garante aos negros o direito de voto. A legislatura de Delaware vota contra a emenda.
  • A comunidade afro-americana de Wilmington homenageia Thomas Garrett por seu trabalho como chefe de estação na estrada de ferro subterrânea.

1872 - Coeducação introduzida no Delaware College, interrompida em 1885.

1875 -A legislatura estadual cria escolas separadas com financiamento separado para crianças brancas e crianças afro-americanas.

1876 - É construída a Estação de Salvamento Indian River, a estação mais antiga do país ainda em seu local original.

1878 - Primeira linha telefônica instalada em Wilmington.

  • Dinamite e nitroglicerina fabricadas pela DuPont Company.
  • Rehoboth Beach acolhe o que alguns afirmam ser o primeiro concurso de beleza do país.
  • A sede do condado de New Castle County muda-se de New Castle para Wilmington.
  • Primeiro serviço religioso judaico organizado em Delaware.

1882 - Primeiras luzes de rua elétricas instaladas em Wilmington.

1883-86 - A ferrovia de Baltimore e Ohio se estende por Delaware.

1885 - Thomas F. Bayard nomeado Secretário de Estado dos Estados Unidos.

1887 - Voluntário, um iate de corrida com casco de aço, construído em Wilmington, derrota Cardo para ganhar a Copa América.

1888 - Os bondes elétricos começam a substituir os carros puxados por cavalos em Wilmington.

1889 - A lei é aprovada proibindo a punição de mulheres em chicotes ou pelourinhos.

  • O State College for Colored Students (agora Delaware State University) foi fundado em 1892.
  • Delmar quase destruído pelo fogo.
  • Thomas F. Bayard nomeado primeiro Embaixador dos Estados Unidos na Grã-Bretanha.
  • Delaware recebe & quotThe Wedge & quot, um pequeno pedaço de terra, em disputa de fronteira com Maryland.
  • A nova constituição do estado foi adotada ainda hoje.
  • As qualificações de propriedade para registro de eleitor foram abolidas.

1899 - A Lei das Sociedades de Delaware foi aprovada. Com o tempo, essa lei facilitará a incorporação de empresas em Delaware do que em outros estados.

Linha do tempo da história do Delaware do século 20

  • O ilustrador Howard Pyle abre sua escola de arte em Wilmington.
  • Frank Stephens compra 163 acres perto de Grubbs Corner para fundar uma comunidade tributária única de Arden.

1901 - O Legislativo ratifica a 13ª, 14ª e 15ª Emendas à Constituição dos Estados Unidos.

1905 - Delaware torna-se o último estado a abolir o uso do pelourinho.

  • Primeiro automóvel licenciado no estado.
  • Delawarean Emily Bissell apresenta o Christmas Seal na América.
  • Casa estatal restaurada e ampliada.
  • Propriedade do Canal de Chesapeake e Delaware transferida para o governo federal.

1911-24 - T. Coleman du Pont constrói uma rodovia que percorre todo o estado e dá para o estado de Delaware.

1911 - Upton Sinclair e Scott Nearing, junto com outros, presos em Arden por jogarem no domingo.

  • Colégio feminino fundado em Newark.
  • Aberto o Hotel Du Pont e o Playhouse.
  • A balsa da Wilson Line inicia o serviço de balsa entre Wilmington e Pennsville, N.J.

1914 - O Women's College é inaugurado em Newark.

1917-18 - Quase 10.000 Delawareans servem na Primeira Guerra Mundial

1920 - A emenda do sufrágio feminino por pouco não é aprovada na legislatura.

1921 - Começa a construção do Terminal Marítimo de Wilmington, concluída em 1923.

1923 - Cecile Steele inicia a indústria de frangos de corte em Delaware.

1926 - Colapso do farol do Cabo Henlopen.

1929 - Louis L. Redding torna-se o primeiro advogado afro-americano no estado.

1934 - A Suprema Corte dos Estados Unidos confirma a reivindicação de Delaware de controlar o rio Delaware.

  • A Suprema Corte dos EUA determina que o arco de doze milhas que define a linha Pensilvânia-Delaware deve ser estendido até o rio Delaware, dando a Delaware alguns acres desabitados ligados a Nova Jersey.
  • O Dr. Wallace Carothers, trabalhando na Estação Experimental da DuPont, descobre a Fibra 66, a primeira fibra sintética.

1938 - Comemoração do Tricentenário do desembarque dos suecos em Wilmington.

1939 - A DuPont Company abre a primeira fábrica de náilon em Seaford e expõe meias de náilon na World Fairs em São Francisco e Nova York.

1941-45 - 30.000 homens e mulheres de Delaware servem nas forças armadas na Segunda Guerra Mundial.

1942 - Fort Miles criado entre Lewes e Rehoboth Beach.
Principais bases aéreas criadas em New Castle e Dover.

1945 - O Women's College se funde com a University of Delaware.

1949 - Realizado o primeiro Festival Anual da Galinha Delmarva.

1950 - O Tribunal da Chancelaria de Delaware ordena que a Universidade de Delaware ponha fim à segregação.

1951 - Delaware Memorial Bridge abre o primeiro vão ligando Delaware a New Jersey.

  • O chanceler Collins J. Seitz considerou as escolas segregadas de Delaware como separadas e desiguais, uma posição defendida pela Suprema Corte dos EUA em marrom v. Conselho de Educação.
  • A última punição pública contra essa forma de punição foi abolida em Delaware em 1972.
  • A Assembleia Geral de Delaware proíbe a segregação racial em locais públicos.
  • O presidente John F. Kennedy abre Delaware Turnpike (Interstate 95 agora John F. Kennedy Memorial Highway) completando uma rodovia sem paradas entre Boston e Washington D.C. Esta foi uma das últimas aparições públicas de Kennedy.

1964 - Cape May- Lewes Ferry começa a operar.

  • Tumultos estouram em Wilmington após o assassinato de Martin Luther King Jr., levando à ocupação de 10 meses da cidade pela Guarda Nacional, a mais longa ocupação do país.
  • Dedicação do segundo vão da Ponte Memorial de Delaware.

1969 - Richard Petty vence a primeira corrida sancionada pela NASCAR em Dover Downs.

1971 - A Lei da Zona Costeira de Delaware proíbe a construção de plantas industriais nas áreas costeiras.

1975 - William & quotJudy & quot Johnson, ex-jogador de beisebol da Negro League, torna-se o primeiro jogador do estado eleito para o Hall da Fama do Beisebol Nacional.

1978 - Daniel Nathans ganha o Prêmio Nobel de Medicina por seu trabalho com hormônios moleculares.

1981 - A Lei de Desenvolvimento do Centro Financeiro é aprovada, incentivando bancos de fora do estado a mudar sua sede para Delaware.

1984 - S.B. Woo eleito vice-governador, tornando-se o oficial asiático-americano de mais alta patente nos Estados Unidos.

  • A legislatura aprova o uso de caça-níqueis em Dover Downs, Harrington e Delaware Park.
  • A ponte da rota 1 sobre o Canal de Chesapeake e Delaware é aberta.

1999 - Jacqueline Jones, natural de Christiana, ganha o prestigioso prêmio MacArthur Genius.


Como a colônia de Delaware foi governada?

A colônia de Delaware, sob a Inglaterra, foi governada pelo duque de York e depois considerada uma colônia proprietária, o que implica uma certa estrutura governamental. A era do duque de York foi de 1664 a 1682, e a era proprietária foi de 1681 a 1776.

Sob o duque de York, o povo de Delaware teve algum grau de autogoverno. O duque de York aplicou as mesmas leis a Nova York. No entanto, Delaware perdeu sua capacidade de se autogovernar como uma colônia proprietária.

Entre as 13 colônias, apenas Delaware, Pensilvânia e Maryland eram colônias proprietárias. Esses tipos de colônias tinham proprietários que mantinham todos os direitos de governo sobre a colônia. No caso dessas colônias, a terra era tecnicamente propriedade do proprietário e não do rei, embora o monarca tivesse que aprovar o proprietário. Proprietários podiam estabelecer igrejas e cidades.

O proprietário de Delaware era William Penn, que recebeu as terras do rei Carlos II. Penn tornou-se responsável por todos os detalhes da colônia como proprietário, incluindo nivelamento de impostos, administração de vilas e cidades e até mesmo monitoramento da religião.


  • Autor: Niara Sudarkasa
  • Editora:
  • Data de lançamento : 1996
  • Gênero: afro-americanos
  • Páginas : 288
  • ISBN 10: UOM: 39015061866664
  • Autor: Annette Carter
  • Editora: Lippincott Williams e Wilkins
  • Data de lançamento : 1975
  • Gênero: Estados atlânticos
  • Páginas : 270
  • ISBN 10: PSU: 000028804093

Colônia Delaware - História

O solo do pequeno estado de Delaware tinha mais requerentes do que o de qualquer outra das treze colônias originais. Situa-se ao longo da grande baía e rio do mesmo nome, e sua importância consistia em seu domínio destes e do grande vale fértil drenado por eles. Foi reivindicada pela primeira vez pelos holandeses por direito da descoberta de Hudson, a seguir pelos suecos, que fizeram o primeiro assentamento permanente, e finalmente passou para a posse dos ingleses. Entre os ingleses, Delaware foi reivindicado por Lord Baltimore como parte de Maryland; em seguida, tornou-se propriedade do Duque de York, foi vendido por ele a William Penn, e somente após a Revolução os habitantes de Delaware se tornaram seus proprietários. Dos treze estados originais, Delaware foi o único, exceto Nova York, que foi fundado por outra raça que não a inglesa.

O primeiro assentamento no território que mais tarde se tornou Delaware foi feito pelos holandeses em 1631, que foram enviados por De Vries, um notável colonizador holandês e um dos patrões de Nova Amsterdã. Entre trinta e quarenta colonos se estabeleceram na baía de Delaware perto do local de Lewes, mas foram levados a uma briga tola com os índios e massacrados até o último homem. A briga começou por uma causa muito trivial. Os holandeses montaram uma folha de flandres com as armas da Holanda. Um índio, sem saber seu significado, o destruiu sem pensar. Os holandeses consideraram isso um insulto à sua nação e exigiram que o ofensor fosse entregue. Assim começou o problema que resultou na destruição de toda a colônia. Quando De Vries veio no ano seguinte para visitar sua colônia, ele não encontrou nada além de montes de cinzas e ossos carbonizados.

Mas a Guerra dos Trinta Anos estava acontecendo na Alemanha e Gustavus Adolphus decidiu invadir aquele país em defesa do protestantismo. Em 1632, na batalha de Lutzen, sua grande vida chegou ao fim, e a colonização sueca na América foi contida, mas não abandonada. A fortuna da Suécia agora caiu nas mãos de Oxenstiern, o executor e ministro-chefe do rei morto. Oxenstiern, um dos maiores estadistas de seu tempo e pouco menos capaz do que seu chefe caído, agora renovou a patente da empresa, estendeu seus benefícios à Alemanha e garantiu os serviços de Peter Minuit, ex-governador de Nova Amsterdã, para liderar seu colônia para o Novo Mundo.

Em duas embarcações, os colonos navegaram e chegaram à Nova Suécia, como chamavam a nova terra, no início do ano de 1638. Construíram um forte no local de Wilmington e deram-lhe o nome de Cristina, em homenagem à criança rainha de sua terra natal. Eles compraram terras dos índios no lado oeste do Delaware até um ponto oposto a Trenton, fundaram uma cidade no local da Filadélfia, construíram igrejas aqui e ali e logo apresentaram a aparência de uma comunidade feliz e próspera. Mas logo surgiram problemas. Os holandeses reivindicaram todo o Vale do Delaware como parte da Nova Holanda e o governador Kieft protestou vigorosamente na época em que os suecos fizeram seu assentamento, mas a Suécia era uma nação muito poderosa naquela época para ser desafiada, e a colônia foi deixada sem ser molestada por enquanto.

A Nova Suécia cresceu com a imigração e se espalhou pelos arredores. John Printz, um dos primeiros governadores, estabeleceu seu quartel-general na ilha de Tinicum, doze milhas abaixo da Filadélfia, dirigiu da Baía de Delaware um bando de aspirantes a colonos da Nova Inglaterra e exibiu um espírito agressivo em geral. Pareceu por um tempo que todo o Vale do Delaware seria colonizado e mantido pelos escandinavos. Mas os holandeses ficaram com inveja de que eles vieram e construíram o Forte Casimir, onde agora fica o Novo Castelo, e assim assumiram o controle da baía. Logo, porém, um navio de guerra sueco entrou na baía e pôs fim ao forte holandês. O turbulento Stuyvesant era agora governador de Nova Amsterdã e decidiu vingar o insulto e acabar com a Nova Suécia. Ele entrou na baía com uma frota levando mais de seiscentos homens. Os suecos, que somavam setecentos ao todo, ficaram intimidados, e a Nova Suécia, que existia dezessete anos, deixou de existir como uma colônia separada. O povo, entretanto, teve permissão para manter a posse de suas fazendas, e a comunidade continuou a prosperar sob seu novo governo. Os suecos eventualmente se espalharam por várias partes e perderam sua identidade e sua língua, mas, como os huguenotes e os salsburgos, infundiram um elemento de força nas veias do futuro americano.

A conquista de Nova Amsterdã pelos ingleses, em 1664, incluiu Delaware, que passou a ser propriedade do duque de York. As Leis do Duque, formuladas por Nicolls para Nova York, foram finalmente estendidas a Delaware, e o povo recebeu alguma medida de autogoverno. Em 1682, no entanto, o ano da fundação da Pensilvânia, o duque vendeu Delaware para William Penn, e a colônia, que veio a ser chamada de & quotTrês condados inferiores & quot ou & quotterritórios & quot, foi no mesmo ano anexada à Pensilvânia. A partir dessa época, estava em poder dos Penn e não tinha governador separado. Embora a colônia assegurasse uma legislatura separada em 1702, sob uma carta de privilégios concedida por Penn, sua história até o tempo da Revolução foi identificada com a de seu grande vizinho do Norte.

Fonte: "História dos Estados Unidos da América", de Henry William Elson, The MacMillan Company, Nova York, 1904. Capítulo VII p. 149-151. Transcrito por Kathy Leigh.


Colônia de Delaware

& quotDelaware foi assim chamado, em 1703, da Baía de Delaware, onde se encontra, e que recebeu o nome de Lord De la War (Thomas West, com o título oficial inglês de Earl), que morreu a bordo de um navio, enquanto descia a baía .

O primeiro assentamento efetuado dentro dos limites de Delaware foi por uma série de suecos e finlandeses, que chegaram da Suécia em 1638, no comando foi Peter Minuits, o primeiro governador de Nova York, que, após deixar os holandeses, se comprometeu a liderar uma colônia para a América, de acordo com um plano originalmente concebido pelo célebre Gustavus Adolphus, Rei da Suécia.

Em sua chegada, Miinuits, com sua colônia, estabeleceram-se em Christiana Creek, perto de Wilmington, e lá construíram um forte. O território que se estende do Cabo Henlopen às Cataratas de Trenton recebeu o nome de Nova Suécia.

Os holandeses, na Nova Holanda, entretanto, reivindicaram o território, e disputas mútuas subsistiram por muito tempo entre eles e os suecos. O governador holandês Kieft, para mantê-los sob controle, reconstruiu o Forte Nassau, cerca de cinco milhas ao sul de Camden, na margem oriental do Delaware, que foi erguido pela primeira vez em 1623, mas, sendo negligenciado, havia decaído. O governador sueco, John Printz, por outro lado, para manter sua posição e ganhar ascendência sobre os holandeses, estabeleceu-se em Tinicum, algumas milhas abaixo da Filadélfia, onde não apenas ergueu uma elegante mansão para si, mas também construiu um forte para a defesa da colônia. Outro forte foi erguido em Lewistown.

Em 1651, o governador holandês Stuyvesant construiu o Forte Casimir, no local atual de Newcastle, cinco milhas de Christiana. A isso Printz protestou e seu sucessor, o governador Rising, sob o pretexto de fazer uma visita amigável ao comandante, levantou-se sobre a guarnição e, com a ajuda de trinta homens, tomou posse do forte.

Indignado com tal ato de traição, o governador Stuyvesant relatou a indignação ao governo local, que ordenou que imediatamente submetesse os usurpadores. Assim, em 1655, partiu de Nova York com seiscentos soldados e, em breve espaço de tempo, reduziu os fortes de Newcastle e Christiana e, posteriormente, todos os demais pertencentes aos suecos. Após isso, uma parte deste último, fazendo o juramento de lealdade à Holanda, permaneceu em suas propriedades, alguns removidos para Maryland e Virgínia, o resto, entre os quais estava o governador Rising, foi enviado para a Europa.

Dessa época até 1664, o território permaneceu na posse dos holandeses, mas na conquista da Nova Holanda pelos ingleses, uma expedição foi enviada contra ele, sob o comando de Sir Hobert Carr, a quem se rendeu, e foi unida a Nova York. Em 1682, porém, o duque de York vendeu a cidade de Newcastle e o país a dezoito quilômetros ao redor para William Penn e, algum tempo depois, o território entre Newcastle e o cabo Henlopen. Esses folhetos, então conhecidos pelo nome de & # 39Territórios, & # 39 constituem o presente Estado de Delaware. Até 1703, eles eram governados como parte da Pensilvânia, mas, naquela época, tinham liberdade do proprietário para formar uma assembleia separada e distinta, o governador da Pensilvânia, porém, ainda exercendo jurisdição sobre eles, até a era da Revolução.

Fonte: Uma História dos Estados Unidos, de Charles A. Goodrich, 1857


História

Quando se trata da história de Delaware, você terá dificuldade em encontrar muitos outros estados que possam rivalizar com ela em termos de profundidade e importância. Devido à sua localização na costa nordeste dos Estados Unidos, Delaware frequentemente se encontrava no meio dos primeiros eventos históricos do país. Os negócios e a tecnologia americanos têm algumas de suas raízes na história de Delaware, e nenhum outro estado pode alegar que foi o primeiro a aderir ao Sindicato. Delaware é muitas coisas diferentes para muitas pessoas diferentes. Suas praias são um lugar para passar férias, seus Parques Estaduais estão abertos a todos os que queiram visitar. Não há imposto sobre vendas em Delaware, portanto, para alguns, é um destino de compras. Os fãs da NASCAR e aqueles que apreciam uma boa corrida de cavalos ou carros modificados a consideram um destino de corrida de primeira. Uma coisa que todos os visitantes devem notar, independentemente de gostos e origens, é o quão histórico esse estado realmente é.

Muito antes de os colonos europeus chegarem aqui em 1600, a história de Delaware viu a região como o lar de algumas tribos indígenas diferentes, entre as quais figurava a sociedade Algonquiana oriental. Eles viviam da terra, tanto da agricultura quanto da caça. Os índios Unami Lenape conseguiram perambular pela região até a década de 1670, quando os Iroquios invadiram. O Lenape que permaneceu finalmente mudou-se para as Montanhas Allegheny. No início da década de 1630, os colonizadores holandeses foram os primeiros europeus a desembarcar em Delaware, marcando uma virada significativa na história do estado de Delaware. Eles fizeram isso onde os atuais Lewes são encontrados no ano de 1631, e seu posto comercial era conhecido pelo nome de Zwaanendael. Esses primeiros colonos teriam um fim infeliz, pois as tribos indígenas da área os mataram. 7 anos depois, os colonos suecos apareceram, desta vez optando por estabelecer o Forte Christina perto de onde hoje fica Wilmington. Os holandeses voltariam novamente a figurar na história de Delaware, no entanto, e 13 anos depois, eles estabeleceram um forte no local onde você encontrará hoje o Novo Castelo. Em meados da década de 1650, os holandeses haviam assumido o controle dos suecos, incluindo assim o território em sua Nova Holanda. Os holandeses não aguentaram muito, pois em 1664 os britânicos lhes dariam uma dose de seu próprio remédio, marcando mais uma virada na história de Delaware.

Os recém-chegados britânicos eram liderados por James, o duque de York. Ele iria conceder a William Penn a propriedade da região de Delaware, fazendo-o em 1682. William Penn é conhecido principalmente como um defensor da unidade dos novos territórios britânicos em uma nova sociedade e por ser o fundador do estado da Pensilvânia . A colônia britânica encontrada na atual Delaware acabou se transformando cada vez mais em uma sociedade escravista. Os escravos haviam sido importados antes, e quando a situação econômica inglesa começou a melhorar em casa, muitos dos colonos britânicos voltaram para sua terra natal. Em Wilmington, os imigrantes suecos que permaneceram ergueram uma igreja luterana em 1698-1699. Esta igreja, conhecida como Old Swedes Church, ainda existe hoje e é uma das principais atrações de Wilmington. Os visitantes podem desfrutar de passeios pela igreja e seu cemitério, que oferece uma visão da história colonial de Delaware. Nem todos os colonos ingleses partiram, e a Grã-Bretanha manteve o controle da Pensilvânia e Delaware até que as sementes para a Guerra Revolucionária foram plantadas. Os colonos que vivem na região de Delaware não pareceram aceitar muito bem a ideia inicial de se separar do domínio britânico, mas com o tempo, isso mudaria. Nessa época, New Castle era a capital da região de Delaware, mas isso também mudaria em breve.

Mapa de Delaware

Dois líderes das forças patriotas, Thomas McKean e César Rodney, influenciariam a Assembleia Colonial no sentido de declarar a independência e, em 1776, eles finalmente o fizeram. A Declaração de Independência logo foi assinada, e os Estados Unidos estavam a caminho de ser & ldquoborn & rdquo. O New Castle Court House era o lugar onde esses estadistas famosos se encontravam e data desses tempos cruciais. Ainda pode ser visitado hoje, e os passeios são gratuitos. Impressionante é o fato de ser o prédio governamental mais antigo do estado ainda de pé, portanto, talvez mais do que outras atrações de Delaware, figura de forma mais proeminente na história de Delaware. Muito do New Castle permanece como estava quando a capital foi transferida para Dover em 1777, logo após a Revolução Americana. A preservação do bairro histórico da cidade passou por algumas reformas, e você ainda encontrará ruas de paralelepípedos e calçadas de tijolos aqui. Those interested in Delaware state history will not want to miss New Castle, nor will they want to miss the chance to visit the Dover museums, which tell a lot about Delaware state history.


Delaware

At least 11,500 years ago people were living in the area now called Delaware. They’re thought to have come from Asia by way of a land bridge that’s now underwater. Thousands of years later Native American tribes including the Lenni Lenape and the Nanticoke lived on the land.

Historians think the first European to arrive was English explorer Henry Hudson, who reached the area’s bay and river in 1609. During the 1600s, Dutch, English, and Swedish colonists settled on the land. These Europeans fought for the land, and in 1674 the English officially regained control of the territory. But in 1776 Delaware declared its independence from England, one of the actions that would result in the Revolutionary War. After the United States had won the war, Delaware became a U.S. state in 1787.

When the Civil War began in 1861, Delaware was a state where slavery was legal. But the vast majority of its troops fought for the Union, which was the group of northern states that was fighting in support of keeping the states together. (Supporters of the Union side also generally wanted to abolish slavery, while the southern states wanted to keep the practice.) In 1865 the Thirteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution declared all slaves in the United States, including in Delaware, to be free people.

WHY’S IT CALLED THAT?

In 1610 explorer Samuel Argall named the bay and river after Virginia’s governor, Lord De La Warr—Delaware!


Alívio

Delaware, located mainly within the Atlantic Coastal Plain, is second only to Florida for having the lowest average elevation. A long sand beach forms the state’s oceanfront, stretching from the border with Maryland, at Fenwick Island, north to Cape Henlopen, at the mouth of Delaware Bay. Only one major break, Indian River Inlet, occurs along the 23-mile (37-km) length of the beach. Much of the beach is a low bar between the ocean and a series of lagoons or shallow bays, but at Bethany Beach, near the southern boundary, and again at Rehoboth Beach, near the northern end, the mainland reaches directly to the ocean.

Much of the shoreline of Delaware Bay is marshy. The mouths of tributaries such as the Murderkill, the Mispillion, and the St. Jones are so shallow that only fishing boats find safe harbours north of Lewes. Farther north, on the banks of the Delaware River, spots of high, dry land appear, as at Port Penn, New Castle, and Edgemoor. The state’s main port, at Wilmington, is located at the confluence of the Delaware River and the Christina, one of its tributaries.

Most of Delaware is drained by streams that run eastward to the Delaware River, Delaware Bay, and the Atlantic Ocean, but the Nanticoke River and its tributaries in southwestern Delaware flow into Chesapeake Bay. So does the Pocomoke River, which drains the Cypress Swamp, or so-called “Burnt Swamp,” in the extreme south of Delaware, athwart the Maryland line.

Most of the Coastal Plain is fertile and level, seldom rising above 60 feet (18 metres) above sea level, but it becomes increasingly sandy to the south. Near its northern edge the plain is intersected by the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal, which has been deepened and straightened for ocean shipping. It shortens the water route between Philadelphia and Baltimore, Md., by several hundred miles and also brings Baltimore closer to the ocean than via Chesapeake Bay. The canal is popularly considered to be the boundary between agricultural downstate Delaware and the northern industrial region. Though the land on either side of it is similar, many Delawareans are convinced that even the weather changes at the canal.

Several high bridges over the canal, the giant twin bridges crossing the Delaware River north of New Castle, and the refinery stacks at Delaware City are the major landmarks on the horizon below the northwestern corner of the state, where the rolling hills of the Piedmont extend south from Pennsylvania. Until the mid-20th century, farmlands, woodlands, streams, and ponds, interspersed by occasional villages, made up most of the state’s landscape to the south of Wilmington. Suburban housing has spread out to encompass the area on either side of the canal and has encroached on New Castle county’s remaining farmland.

The highest point in the state—just off Ebright Road in New Castle county, near the Pennsylvania state line—is only 448 feet (137 metres) above sea level. Peculiar features are Iron and Chestnut hills, which protrude into the plain southwest of Newark and are scarred by open pits where iron ore once was mined.

The centre of Wilmington lies on hills sloping downward toward the confluence of the Christina and its major tributary, the Brandywine. There, navigable water brought shipping close to falls that provided power for manufacturing. The railroads and highways, which followed this fall line along the east coast, have kept Wilmington on major transportation routes between Philadelphia and Baltimore and have promoted the tendency for the urbanization of open land between Wilmington and other cities.


Delaware colony - History

BLACK AMERICANS IN DELAWARE: AN OVERVIEW

James E. Newton
University of Delaware

The history and life experiences of black Americans has been long neglected and continues to provide important opportunities for research. In his pioneering work on blacks in American history, George Washington Williams, a minister and America's first significant black historian, wrote in 1882, "I have tracked my bleeding countrymen through the widely scattered documents of American history. . . ." Anyone attempting research on the history of black Americans in Delaware and the Eastern Shore will certainly find Williams' comments appropriate. The purpose of this essay is to provide a general overview of the historical experience of African Americans in Delaware. A chronological pattern has divided the discussion into four historical periods: 1639-1787 1787-1865 1865-1930 and 1930-the present.

In the Beginning: 1639-1787

The history of the black population in the English colonies in North America began in 1619 with the sale of 20 servants to settlers in Jamestown. Delaware's first settlers were the Swedes and the Dutch. In their quest for power, the Dutch took over from the Swedes, but in 1664, were driven out of Delaware by their colonial rivals, the English. Historical documents record the first black in Delaware territory was Anthony, who was captured by the skipper of the Grip in 1638. In 1639, "Black Anthony" was delivered to Fort Christina and nine years later served as special assistant to Governor Printz.

In 1721, an estimated 2,000-5,000 slaves lived in Pennsylvania and the three lower counties on the Delaware (New Castle, Kent, and Sussex). Possibly 500 of this number resided in the three lower counties. Most of the slaves and free blacks in the three lower counties worked as farm laborers or as domestic servants. European indentured servants could not supply the demand for labor, so the difference was made up by slaves. Well-to-do planters in Kent County (e.g., Nicholas Loockerman, John Vining, and Dr. Charles Ridgely) owned large numbers of slaves.

Some slaves were trained for jobs other than farming or domestic service. In 1762, John Dickinson, one of Delaware's most prominent revolutionary statesmen and a Quaker, in advertising his plantation for rent, mentioned that the renter might secure the services of slaves trained as tanners, shoemakers, carpenters and tailors as well as in farm work, providing that they were treated kindly. Other slaves were trained as foundry men. Advertisements of runaway slaves from the lower counties reported some who knew how to play the violin and to read and write.

The socialization of blacks was controlled in Delaware by an act of 1700 entitled, "For the trial of Negroes." This policy marked 150 years of discriminatory legislation. Blacks were given more severe penalties than whites for certain crimes, prohibited from carrying weapons or assembling in large numbers, and were subject to special court procedures. Later laws placed even greater restrictions on them by prohibiting voting, holding office, giving evidence against whites, and banning mixed marriages. On the eve of the American Revolution, so many slaves resided in the colony that some inhabitants feared an insurrection. The General Assembly passed an act in 1773 raising the duty to 20 pounds for bringing an individual slave into the Lower counties with the explanation that numerous plots and insurrections in mainland America had resulted in the murders of several inhabitants.

The best estimates are that the three lower counties contained 2,000 blacks in 1775, with each county containing approximately one-third of the total. In view of the great increase of black inhabitants by 1790, the figure may be underestimated.

The General Assembly, in 1775, attempted to prohibit both the import and export of slaves, but Governor John Penn vetoed the measure. The Constitution of 1776 provided that "No person hereafter imported into this state from Africa ought to be held in slavery under any pretense whatever, and no Negro, Indian or mulatto slave ought to be brought into this state for sale from any part of the world." In spite of this clause, some blacks were illegally sold or kidnapped, and farmers who owned land on Maryland's Eastern Shore were entitled, with court permission, to take slaves across the border. Later legislation severely punished kidnappers and tried to ensure that slaves were not sold out of the state or brought into it.

During the American Revolution, the black population of Delaware made a great contribution to American victory as toilers of the soil and in general services. Delaware blacks served as express riders, supervisors of horses, and teamsters. Others showed their loyalty by paying taxes in bushels of wheat for the support of the army, just as their white neighbors did.

In his formative years, African Methodist Episcopal Bishop Richard Allen, of Kent County, aided the American cause by driving a salt wagon from Lewes. Perhaps some of his cargo reached Washington's army.

Delaware Quakers, inspired by Warner Mifflin of Kent County, began to free their slaves in 1775. Many followed their example. John Dickinson manumitted more than a score of slaves of his St. Jones' Neck estate in Kent County in 1777. Dickinson also provided education for his slaves' children.

Another revolutionary leader of Kent County, Caesar Rodney, arranged for the manumission of his slaves in his will at his death in 1784. In spite of such efforts, the census of 1790 listed 8,887 slaves and 3,899 free blacks.

Statehood to the Civil War: 1787-1865

When the new federal constitution was completed in September 1787, it was sent to the states for approval. Delaware was the first state to take action. On December 7, 1787, at a state convention in Dover, the new constitution was unanimously ratified making Delaware the first state to join the Union.

Statehood in Delaware, like other states, raised several serious questions about slavery, colonization, manumission, and the legal status of free blacks in the state. Although state law forbade the sale of slaves out of the state, efforts to transport them for this purpose illicitly continued at the end of the 18th century. Occasionally, free blacks were kidnapped and sold as slaves. Freedmen found it wise to deposit apprentice and freedom papers with the Pennsylvania Abolition Society in Philadelphia.

Some Delawareans were interested in manumission, but only if the freedmen returned to Africa. In 1827, the Wilmington Union Colonization Society petitioned the legislature for approval of such an objective. The Assembly passed a resolution approving the goals of the Society.

Wilmington blacks took a different view of colonization. At a meeting in 1831, they expressed the opinion that colonization was not in the best interest of the black race and was at variance with the principle of civil and religious liberty. They also saw it as incompatible with the spirit of the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution.

Delawareans, mostly Quakers, organized the Delaware Society for Promoting the Abolition of Slavery in 1788. About the same year, the Delaware Society for the Gradual Abolition of Slavery was also formed. These societies did outstanding work in protecting free blacks from kidnapping and in encouraging slave owners to free their slaves. However, there were other forces attempting to keep slaves in bondage. The most notorious slavenapper was Patty Cannon who, with her son-in-law Joe Johnson, ran a tavern on the Delaware-Maryland line in Sussex County. She had been accused of kidnapping blacks for sale to slave traders and of murder. She was under indictment for her notorious activities when she died in jail at Georgetown in 1829.

Support for Delaware's black populace was best exemplified through Thomas Garrett , a Wilmington businessman and Quaker. In a letter to a New York state abolitionist in 1858, he claimed to have aided 2,152 blacks escape (by the time of the Civil War, the figure was over 2,700). In 1848, he was fined $5,400 for assisting runaway slaves. His property was sold at a sheriff's sale. Later, with the aid of friends, he successfully re-established himself in business.

Black abolitionists also aided members of their race in escaping. Abraham D. Shadd , a Wilmington shoemaker, was active in the Underground Railroad and in working for black rights. Samuel Burris , of Kent County, was a black conductor on the Underground Railroad. Jailed in Dover for his activities and sold into servitude, he found--to his pleasant surprise--his Quaker friends had arranged to buy his time. Famed heroine Harriet Tubman , known for her Underground Railroad activities, frequently led slaves to freedom from the Eastern Shore of Maryland. She and Garrett formed one of the most successful teams on the Underground Railroad.

The number of slaves in Delaware decreased rapidly from almost 9,000 in 1790 to half that number in 1820. By 1860, the number had decreased to 1,798. The usual explanation given is humanitarianism and religious feeling, abolitionist efforts, and runaways. In reality, Delaware farmers found it cheaper to hire free black labor than to keep slaves. Furthermore, Delaware, the most northern of the slave states, had no great crop of tobacco or cotton to be looked after during all seasons of the year. The land was wearing out, and state law forbade the sale of slaves out of state. Thus, slave owners could not benefit from breeding slaves as in a state like Virginia.

By 1860, slavery was extinct in Wilmington and disappearing in lower New Castle County. Even in Sussex County, the ratio of free to slave was one to three, but the General Assembly hesitated to take the final step. The Friends of Abolition almost succeeded in 1847, but one vote kept them from success.

How slaves were treated depended upon the whim of their owner. Mary Parker Welch, in her reminiscences of slavery in Delaware, paints mostly a pleasant picture of slave life in Sussex County. She knew of slaves who had purchased their freedom and later owned small farms and cottages. But, even Mrs. Welch told of whippings, illegal sales to slave traders for sale outside of the state, and the separation of families.

Some masters treated their slaves kindly. At the death of his father, John M. Clayton, later a distinguished Senator, brought the family slaves at a sheriff's sale with the understanding that they would be freed as soon as the money he had borrowed for that purpose was repaid.

Such an episode can be counterbalanced with tales of cruelty. John Hawkins, for example, in the 1830s, unsuccessfully petitioned the courts to prevent the sale of his children into the deep South. Solomon Bayley was a Delaware slave sold illicitly to a Virginia owner. He managed to escape and return to Delaware, where he eventually succeeded in buying not only his own freedom, but that of his wife and children. Levin Tilmon was born a slave but later became free and was indentured as an apprentice. He describes vividly hardships of both slaves and free blacks in his narrative published in 1853. William Still's compilation of narratives of the Underground Railroad is full of stories of whippings, separation of families, and mistreatment.

Prior to the Civil War, free blacks suffered from many legal discriminatory practices. They needed passes signed by white men to leave the state, and if they were absent more than six months, they could not return. Free blacks from other states were not permitted to move to Delaware.

Laws became noticeably stricter after the 1831 Nat Turner Insurrection in Virginia. Several petitions requested that the General Assembly provide even stricter regulations on the mobility of free blacks. Although free blacks resented these laws and petitioned against them, their efforts were to no avail.

Free blacks in the decades before the Civil War began to acquire property and gained some degree of economic security. While this was true in all counties, it was especially so in Wilmington, where county tax records show that a number of blacks owned their own homes and occasionally other buildings. While most of the blacks in the state outside of Wilmington engaged in farming or domestic service, those in Wilmington earned their living in a variety of ways. The City Directory of 1845 lists 26 occupations in which blacks found employment (see Dalleo in this volume).

The black population in Wilmington believed that education was an important tool for improving their lives. The Quakers opened a school for blacks in 1798, and in 1816, the African School Society opened another. A survey in 1837 found that this school was the only one in operation at the time. However, a Quaker philanthropist left money in his will for the opening of two schools in Kent county. Three or four Sunday schools provided elementary instruction in reading and writing. Free blacks were frequently apprenticed to learn a trade. Usually the boys were instructed in farming, and the girls in household work. Occasionally, boys were apprenticed to carpenters, blacksmiths, and shoemakers.

Delaware blacks were also attracted to religious observances. In the early part of the 18th century, slaves and freedmen attended white churches but were relegated to sitting in the gallery (as at Barratt's Chapel). Many blacks were attracted by the lively services of the Methodists and attended meetings of that denomination more than any other.

Harry Hosier, known as "Black Harry," was a traveling companion of Francis Asbury. In 1781, he preached a sermon at Barratt's Chapel in Kent County on the barren fig tree: "The circumstance was new, and the white people looked on with attention." Hosier became well-known along the eastern seaboard, preaching for more than 30 years. Dr. Benjamin Rush, of Philadelphia, once declared that allowing for his illiteracy, Black Harry was the greatest orator in America.

The first black church in Delaware was Ezion Methodist Episcopal Church which was established in Wilmington in 1805 when the black members of the Asbury Methodist Church withdrew and erected their own building with the aid of white contributors. Resenting white control of their services, however, the bulk of the members of Ezion Methodist Episcopal Church withdrew in 1813, under the leadership of the Reverend Peter Spencer and William Anderson and formed the Union African Methodist Episcopal Church (UAME). Under the guidance of the Reverend Spencer, the church grew rapidly. By the time of the death of the "patriarch" in 1843, the congregation consisted of more than 1,200 members in several states.

In the decades before the Civil War, humanitarian feelings, the efforts of abolitionists, and the failure of some planters to run their plantations profitably resulted in a great increase in the number of free blacks. On the eve of the Civil War, in a white population of 90,589, black inhabitants were distributed as follows:

COUNTY SLAVES GRATUITAMENTE TOTAL
New Castle 254 8,188 8,442
Kent 303 7,271 7,474
Sussex 1,341 4,370 5,711
Total 1,798 19,829 21,627

When the Civil War began, blacks were not accepted into the Union Army, but this policy changed in 1862. Eventually, 1,400 black men from Delaware served. Some enlisted, some were drafted, and others were hired as substitutes by men who did not wish to serve in the army.

During the War, President Lincoln wished to experiment with compensated emancipation in Delaware as a way to end slavery in the nation. He conferred with Representative George P. Fisher, in 1861, about this possibility. Fisher and Nathaniel B. Smithers of Dover, a Republican politician who later became a Congressman, drew up a plan to compensate owners and to abolish slavery completely in the State by 1872. However, a poll of the members of the Assembly revealed the measure would fail by one vote.

While Lincoln's 1863 Emancipation plan freed the slaves in the rebellious states, those in border states like Delaware were not affected until the passage of the Thirteenth Amendment in December 1865. Delaware slaves were finally free.

Civil War to the Depression: 1865-1930

Following emancipation, the Delaware Legislature began to place even more limitations on African American citizenship. Politicians lost no time in forging an anti-black agenda, especially the Democrats who did not favor emancipation. As Governor Saulsbury said in his inaugural address earlier in the year, the true position of the Negro was as a subordinate race excluded from all political and social privileges. The Democratic legislature, in 1866, resolved that blacks were not the political or social equal of whites. These statements were probably typical of how many white Delawareans felt on the racial issue and were similar to those expressed in the Southern states. The legislature soon found ways to prevent blacks from exercising full citizenship. These measures were so successful that Ku Klux Klan activities in Delaware, during this time were limited.

Freedmen anticipated they would have full rights but soon found the period after the War was a time for frustration and disappointment. "White or black" was the political issue of the Reconstruction period, the Delaware Gazette in Wilmington declared. The Democrats wasted no time using the race card whenever the opportunity arose.

The Republicans fought back with no success. In 1867, a Congressional Committee investigated whether the state had a "Republic." Strong testimonies were presented indicating Sussex and Kent County's opposition to ". . . Negro suffrage, Negro education and Negro political and social equality." In spite of such testimony, the Committee did not recommend that the federal government intervene as it did in some areas of the South.

Fearful that the 1875 Civil Rights Act passed by Congress might establish social equality, Delaware legislators passed a "Jim Crow" law (1875), which virtually made black Delawareans second-class citizens. The law was not appealed until 1963.

Delaware blacks achieved little during the first 10 years of their freedom because of obstacles raised by prejudice and the legislature. The only sign of any progress was in the area of education. Educational opportunities for blacks widened in Delaware during the Reconstruction period, in part aided by the activities of the Freedmen's Bureau. In addition, the work of the Delaware Association for the Moral Improvement and Education of the Coloured People was invaluable.

Nothing was done about higher education until 1891, when the provisions of the federal second Morrill Act resulted in the founding of Delaware State College (now Delaware State University). For many years, it provided opportunities for both secondary and college education. Facilities and support from the state were, at first, inadequate. The dominant personality during the first 25 years of existence was Dr. William C. Jason, its second president, who assumed the task of developing "the college as an instrument for the upgrading of the Negro in Delaware."

Economically, blacks remained at a disadvantage, as studies of Dr. Jerome Holland, former president of Delaware State College, and Dr. Harold Livesay revealed. Dr. Livesay found blacks remained at the bottom of the economic ladder between Reconstruction and World War II, being virtually excluded from white collar jobs. In 1940, 70 percent of all blacks employed were either laborers or domestic servants, compared with 12 percent of the white working force. Blacks held about 75 percent of all menial jobs in the state in 1940. The development of a small middle class in Wilmington, including an increasing number of black teachers was the only encouraging sign. But, such factors as discriminatory hiring practices, segregated labor unions, and an inadequate school system made progress difficult.

Social and political discrimination against blacks seriously restricted any advancement. A famous U.S. Supreme Court decision in 1880 ruled that William Neal could not stand convicted of rape and murder because blacks were excluded from jury duty. As a result, Moses America, a black man, was summoned to jury duty in 1881, but blacks were not freely called thereafter. Blacks were also excluded from the practice of law. Black firemen and policemen were still not hired. In 1893, George Tilghman, a grocer, became a bailiff in the City Council.

A political breakthrough came in 1901, when Thomas E. Postles, a Wilmington laborer and small businessman, became a member of City Council. To Wilmington blacks he was a hero, and a political club was named after him. He was re-elected in 1905. At a political rally at Bavarian Park on Dupont Street in 1906, William T. Trusty, President of the Postles Club, said, "This organization intends to battle for the benefit of the Negro until the last Negro in Delaware dies, if need be." Postles' successor was John O. Hopkins, a druggist, who served on the Council for 32 years.

Downstate a breakthrough came in 1901, the same year that Postles began to serve on the City Council, when John Barclay was appointed by Governor Hunn as a janitor in the State House. Although it was a menial job, it was the first time a black served in any capacity in a state administration.

The climax of this frustrating period of disappointment came in 1903, when under the excitement of a sermon preached by the pastor of Olivet Presbyterian Church, members of the community broke into the workhouse. They dragged out George White for lynching. White was a black man accused of rape and murder. The press was unanimous in denouncing the affair, and the racist minister was later driven out of town.

A chapter of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People was organized in Wilmington in 1915. Its first success was in persuading the City Council to pass an ordinance banning moving pictures "likely to stir up bad feelings between the races." This ordinance prevented the showing of "The Birth of a Nation," which presented blacks in an unfavorable light during Reconstruction. Since then, the organization has worked for fair employment, housing, integration of schools, and remains the major agency to fight the battle for civil rights.

Delaware blacks served their country in World War I, though they faced discrimination within the armed services. An estimated 1,400 blacks from the state served, including five officers. The Norman D. Scott post of the American Legion was named for a black casualty who belonged to the James Reese European band.

Although he fought to make the world safe for democracy, the returning veteran did not find a different world than he had left. During the next 20 years, he faced economic, social, and political discrimination. When the Works Progress Administration (WPA) studied blacks in the 1930s, writers found that a "color line" existed, especially in the southern part of Delaware. White Delawareans below Wilmington claimed they had no objection to associating with blacks as long as they "stayed in their place," but, in reality, there was little association between the races except at the bottom levels of both groups or by wealthy whites who employed servants.

In northern Delaware, blacks were granted theoretical equality, though there was little intimate or general association with whites. Blacks could sit anywhere in public conveyances and patronize public libraries and parks, but they were excluded from theaters, restaurants, and hotels. They had their own schools and usually attended services in their own churches. Overall, black Wilmingtonians had more freedom than fellow blacks in southern Delaware.

When Mrs. Dunbar-Nelson wrote "Delaware: A Jewel of Inconsistencies," in 1924, she saw some encouraging signs such as the appearance of black physicians, dentists, pharmacists, and members of the Wilmington Board of Education, Board of Health, and City Council. Blacks also served on the Republican State Committee. She was disappointed that practically all state and county offices were closed to blacks, except in a menial capacity.

Modern Times: 1930 to the Present

During the Depression, blacks were in a desperate plight. The old adage--the last to be hired, and the first to be fired--applied. WPA investigators estimated that 60 percent of employable blacks lacked visible means of support, another 20 percent were employed on work relief, and the remaining 20 percent worked as farm laborers and domestics. Small businessmen suffered greatly from the Depression. The only bright feature was the gains made by the professional classes.

During this time, blacks rarely advanced politically. An exception was William W. Coage, son of a businessman who operated a stage line from New Castle to Wilmington. A graduate of Wilberforce University in 1899, he received an appointment as a clerk in the Census Bureau in Washington, D.C., in 1900, with the aid of Senator Henry A. DuPont. Coage was the first Delaware black ever to receive such a federal post. From 1902 to 1924, he followed a business career, but in 1924, he was appointed a member of the U.S. Commission to investigate conditions in the Virgin Islands. A year later, he became Second Deputy Recorder of Deeds in Washington, D.C. In 1930, he was appointed Recorder.

In 1930, 60 out of 100 blacks were gainfully employed. Of these, 21 of each 100 were in agriculture, 20 in manufacturing and mercantile industries, 12 in transportation, six in fishing, one in mining, one clerical and 33 in personal and domestic service. Blacks owned or were tenants of 827 farms. The two largest classes in which blacks worked were in domestic service or road construction. Few labor unions admitted blacks, and their wages as laborers or domestic servants were low.

Because of the Depression, it is not surprising that black residents began to support Democratic candidates rather than those of the "party of Lincoln." Numerous black children bore the given name of Franklin Delano Roosevelt.

In World War II, more than 4,000 blacks served in the armed forces and a few received commissions as officers: Five in the Army, one in the Air Corps, and three as warrant officers. Blacks were not yet admitted to the Delaware National Guard. Four young women served in the Women's Army Corps. Later, black inhabitants served in the Korean and Vietnam Wars.

The returning veterans from World War II found no warmer welcome than after World War I. Although 15,000 blacks could vote, they did not organize and made little impact on legislation or in receiving jobs. When Pauline Young wrote her pioneer history of blacks in Delaware in 1947, she found few black officeholders except in menial jobsÛnone in the legislature or in white collar jobs in county or state offices, and practically none on state boards. Two blacks served on Wilmington City Council, but few were employed in city offices. The same kind of social discrimination that prevailed in the 1920s and 1930s continued to be practiced, but eventful changes were anticipated.

Strong national leadership under Dr. Martin Luther King and others, along with an energized local leadership, provided the impetus for black socialization in Delaware. In 1950, Who's Who in Colored America included 10 Delawareans: from Wilmington, Dr. Conwell Banton, well-known physician in the fight against tuberculosis Reverend A. R. James, clergyman Dr. T. F. Jamison, dentist G. A. Johnson, school principal Pauline A. Young, librarian and author and from Delaware State College, Miss T. E. Bradford, T. R. Moses, C. W. Pinckney, and H. D. Weaver, college professors, and from Laurel, J. R. Webb, school principal. This list was far from inclusive. It might have mentioned Dr. Jerome Holland, former head of Delaware State College in the 1940s, who went on to become the head of Hampton Institute (VA), a representative to the United Nations and Ambassador to Sweden, or Mrs. Dorothy Banton, wife of the distinguished physician Conwell Banton, who did so much for teenagers at the Kruse School, or members of the Henry family in Dover, distinguished in medicine, dentistry and pharmacy. Dr. William Henry served on the Dover School Board and as a trustee of Delaware State College. It might have included the distinguished lawyer, Louis Redding, who began his battle on behalf of desegregation in the schools in 1950, or his brother, J. Saunders Redding, who wrote the widely known book, On Being Black in America , in which he described in a moving way his childhood in Wilmington, or Edward Loper, an outstanding artist and interpreter of the Delaware scene.

Changes influenced by black leaders began to occur about the time of World War II. The first basketball game between a white and black school took place in 1942, when Wilmington Friends School played Howard High School. The first black member of the legislature, William J. Winchester, a Republican, was elected in 1945. Paul Livingstone became the second member in 1952. Salesianum High School opened its doors to five black students in 1950. In the next few years, the integration of the YMCA (1951), black members of the National Guard (1951), and the opening of the Hotel DuPont to black citizens (1953) occurred.

In education, the University of Delaware opened its doors to black students in 1948. Louis Redding filed a suit on behalf of black children in Claymont and Hockessin in 1950 for admission to the white public schools on the grounds that facilities for black children were inferior. As a result, Chancellor Collins J. Seitz ordered desegregation. The case was then appealed to the United States Supreme Court. Delaware was one of five defendants in Brown v. Board of Education . In 1954, the Supreme Court ordered desegregation. Wilmington schools began to comply in that year as did Dover, but in other parts of state, progress was slow. In Milford, efforts by the National Association for the Advancement of White People headed by Bryant W. Bowles, an ardent desegregation opponent, along with others, hindered the process of desegregation. Louis Redding filed suit in 1957 for the admission of black children in seven downstate schools, and Chief Justice Leahy of Delaware ordered desegregation to begin by fall. Through appeal, the decision was not put into effect until 1959. Since then, all schools have become integrated, but in 1975, a court order provided that New Castle County schools should be integrated on a county-wide basis, as the Wilmington schools were mostly attended by black students and county schools by white students.

Peaceful progress in solving problems relating to civil rights was rudely checked in 1968 by riots and disturbances in Wilmington. The nation was shocked in April 1968 by the assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King. As a result, disturbances broke out in many cities, including Wilmington. Rioting, looting, and sniping occurred in an area bound by Fourth Street, Washington Street, Ninth Street, and Interstate 95. Mayor John Babiarz placed the city under a 6:00 p.m. curfew and banned the sale of liquor and firearms. Governor Charles Terry called in the National Guard to keep order. Scores of people were injured, and many were arrested for violating the curfew, looting, and sniping. This outbreak lasted about 10 days before calming down. Governor Terry was criticized for keeping the National Guard on duty in the city for months, and this decision contributed to his defeat in the November election.

This affair merely pointed out that blacks in Wilmington were so frustrated by the slow pace of progress that they struck out in blind rage at the loss of Dr. King--the national leader who had offered hope. Four New Castle County representatives in the General Assembly reflected this attitude in a statement issued at the time, saying that "Not enough has been done to alleviate causes of poverty, despair, discrimination or unrest." They recommended the Assembly prohibit discrimination in the sale and rental of homes, establish a State Department of Housing, and improve recreational facilities. Within a few years, federal funds were provided for improved housing, though many problems remained unsolved.

Since World War II, Wilmington has increasingly become a black city. In 1970, 40 percent of the population was black, a significant increase (40 percent) in the number of blacks residing in the city since 1960, while the white population in that decade decreased by 36 percent. Wilmington had a population of 80,000, consisting of 45,000 whites, 35,000 blacks, and 1,300 Hispanics. In 1940, the city reached an all- time high total population of 112,000, which has declined since that time. These changes were accompanied by the movement of many white inhabitants to the suburbs, making New Castle County one of the most rapidly growing counties in the nation by the majority of black students in public schools by an increasing number of employees of the city, county, and industry being black, and by the struggle of the downtown area to improve its facilities in view of the competition with suburban shopping centers and malls.

From the 1970s to the present, blacks in Delaware have made moderate progress. While much can be attributed to individual successes, it nonetheless provides the stimulus for group advancement. The history of the group has been like a seesaw, a host of highs and lows. However, as economic gains increase and opportunities are presented, there are hints of optimism for Delaware's black populace. The inauguration of Wilmington's first black mayor, James Sills, in January 1993 served as one of the biggest signs of hope.

The black contribution to the state has been phenomenal and most recognize that the ebony inhabitants have come a long way since "Black Anthony" first arrived on the shores of the Delaware River in 1639.

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